Critics who claim that references to “goats” in the Book of Mormon are anachronisms ignore important contradictory evidences.
- Goats are mentioned among the Book of Mormon peoples three times, once by the Jaredites (Ether 9:18). Later, after their arrival in the America’s Lehi’s family encountered “the goat and the wild goat” as they traveled in the wilderness in the land southward (1 Nephi 18:25). Sometime later, Enos wrote that the Nephites raised “flocks of herds, and flocks of all manner of cattle of every kind, and goats, and wild goats” (Enos 1:21).
- There is no indication that Lehi brought goats, but the Jaredites may have done so.
- References to fauna in the Book of Mormon could actually be different animals that had a similar appearance. The Red Brocket deer, Mazama Americana has but a single goat-like horn and are indigenous to MesoAmerica.
- Evidence of goats that were associated with pre-Columbian man has been excavated in caves in the Yucatan, Mexico.
- Book of Mormon references to “goat and the wild goat” is a curious distinction that parallels the Bible that lists them separately as clean animals that could be eaten under the Law of Moses (Deuteronomy 14:4–5). It is unlikely that Joseph Smith would have understood this distinction.
- As with all accusations of anachronisms, it is impossible to prove something did not exist. The process becomes more difficult if the translation of languages is involved because it may be impossible to accurately identify the thing reportedly absent. Current excavations have uncovered only a small fraction of the information required to definitively declare an animal did not exit.
New Evidence for Pre-Columbian Horses, Cattle, and Chariots
“Animals in the Book of Mormon: Challenges and Perspectives,” Blog of Interpreter: A Journal of Mormon Scripture.
Book of Mormon Anachronisms Part 1: Fauna (Animals) (PDF) by Michael Ash
Book of Mormon Anachronisms Part 2: Flora (Plants) and Textiles (PDF) by Michael Ash
Book of Mormon Anachronisms Part 3: Warfare (PDF) by Michael Ash
Book of Mormon Anachronisms Part 4: Metals and Metallurgy (PDF) by Michael Ash
Book of Mormon Anachronisms Part 5: Christianity in the pre-Christian Book of Mormon (PFD) by Michael Ash
Book of Mormon Anachronisms Part 6: Compass, Coins, and Other Miscellaneous (PDF) by Michael Ash
Horses in the Book of Mormon by Michael Ash
Steel in the Book of Mormon by William Hamblin
Armor in the Book of Mormon by William J. Hamblin
Metals of the Book of Mormon – by Wm. Revell Phillips
Out of the Dust: Steel in Early Metallurgy – by John L. Sorenson
Possible “Silk” and “Linen” in the Book of Mormon byJohn L. Sorenson
Prophets, Kings, and Swords: The Sword of Laban and Its Possible Pre-Laban Origin – by Daniel N. Rolph
Swords and “Cimeters” in the Book of Mormon – byMatthew Roper
Swords in the Book of Mormon by William J. Hamblin, A. Brent Merrill
The Bow and Arrow in the Book of Mormon by William J. Hamblin
A Scientist Looks at Book of Mormon Anachronisms,Neal Rappleye
Right on Target: Boomerang Hits and the Book of Mormon (2001 FAIR Conference) by Matthew Roper
Science and the Book of Mormon (2009 FAIR Conference) by Wade E. Miller
A Real People, Time, and Place: Contextualizing the Book of Mormon (2000 FAIR Conference) by Brant Gardner
A Social History of the Early Nephites (2001 FAIR Conference) by Brant Gardner
FAIR Issues 42: Dismissing Book of Mormon Geography Inaccuracies, Michael R. Ash, 0:07:22
FAIR Issues 55: Do Nephite Names find a “Home” in Middle East, Michael R. Ash, 0:07:54
Faith and Reason 11: Book of Mormon Politics Unlike Joseph Smith’s, Michael R. Ash, 0:08:52
Faith and Reason 19: Deseret and Bees, Michael R. Ash, 0:05:09
Faith and Reason 20: “Without a Cause”, Michael R. Ash, 0:04:35
Mormon FAIR-Cast 109: Response to criticisms of the Book of Mormon, Martin Tanner, 0:19:50
Ammon and the Mesoamerican Custom of Smiting off Arms
Barley and Wheat in the Ancient New World
Battles and The Book of Mormon
Book of Mormon 2 Why Anachronisms
Book of Mormon 3 Pre Columbian Horses
Book of Mormon 4 Elephants in America
Book of Mormon 7 Brass Iron and Steel
Book of Mormon 8 Gold Plates
Book of Mormon 9 No Pre Columbian Wheels
Cattle and The Book of Mormon
Coins and The Book of Mormon
Don’t Experts Say There is No Evidence of Silk or Linen in Ancient America
Glass and The Book of Mormon
Horses, chariots, and elephants in the Book of Mormon
Iron Ore – Book of Mormon Evidence
Linens and The Book of Mormon
Metal and Metallurgy – The Mines of Timna – Book of Mormon Evidence
Metals and Golden Plates in Mesoamerica, Daniel Johnsons 2010 BMAF lecture
Metals and The Book of Mormon
New Evidence for Pre-Columbian Horses
pt 15, silk and archaeology in The Book of Mormon, credits
pt 2 Coins, (full-length) rebuttal of an anti-Mormon
pt 3, Metals (full-length) rebuttal of an anti-Mormon
pt 4 Grains, (full-length) rebuttal of an anti-Mormon
pt 5 Horses, (full-length) rebuttal of an anti-Mormon
Silk and The Book of Mormon
Swine and The Book of Mormon
Swords in The Book of Mormon
Wheat and Barley in The Book of Mormon