Comparing Book of Mormon Geography

BOOK OF MORMON GEOGRAPHY


CES Letter, Page 13

This map is labeled "Book of Mormon Geography" with names applied to the Great Lakes region. This is purely a theory. Theories regarding the geographic locations for the Book of Mormon peoples have been promoted since the book's publication in 1830.

At least 80 different proposals have been described.

New theories continue to be developed.

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints has no official position on the geographic locations of the Book of Mormon civilizations.

Available theories can be divided into two general categories:

Limited geography theory (LGT)

Hemispheric geography theory (HGT)

Other variations involve the locations of:

The narrow neck of land

The "land north"

The "land south"

The Hill Cumorah

The River Sidon

Nephi's original landing

Modified from FairMormon:

Date Theory 

Proposed

Scope Narrow

Neck

Land

North

Land

South

Cumorah River

Sidon

Nephi's Landing Source
n.d. N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Lauritzen n.d.
n.d N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Tyler n.d.
1830 HGT Panama Panama to NY South America New York Magdalena? Chile General 1830s
1842 HGT? Unclear Tehuantepec-NY? Unclear New York Unclear Colombia Times and Seasons 1842
1866 HGT Panama Panama to NY South America New York Magdalena Chile Pratt 1866
1880 HGT Panama Panama to NY South America New York Magdalena Chile Com.-Maes 1880
1880 HGT Panama Panama to NY South America New York Magdalena Chile Reynolds 1880
1887 HGT Panama Guatemala South America New York? Magdalena Chile? Plain Facts 1887
1888 HGT Panama Panama to NY South America New York Magdalena Chile Roberts 1888
1900 HGT Panama Panama to NY South America New York Magdalena Chile RLDS/Wes 1900?
1904 HGT Panama Panama to NY South America Unclear Magdalena Chile Ricks 1904
1917 LGT Tehuantepec South-Central Mexico Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan Central Mexico Usumacinta Central America Hills 1917
1920 LGT Other Guatemala Honduras-El Salvador Guatemala Ulna Central America Young pre-1920?
1922 LGT Panama Panama toNY South America Central Mexico Magdalena Chile? Gunsolley 1922
1925 HGT Honduras Bay Panama to NY Southern Guatemala Guatemala Ulna Central America Driggs 1925
1927 HGT Belize-Yucatan base South-Central Mexico Unclear New York Unclear Unclear Bagley 1927
1927 HGT Tehuantepec Tehuantepec-NY Unclear New York Unclear Chile Sjodhal 1927
1939 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Washburn/Washburn 1939
1940 HGT Tehuantepec Tehuantepec-NY Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan New York Usumacinta Unclear Laytons 1940?
1940 LGT Tehuantepec South-Central Mexico Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan Central Mexico Usumacinta Central America Jakeman 1940s
1947 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Ferguson 1947
1947 HGT Panama Panama to NY South America? New York Unclear Chile? Wilde 1947
1948 LGT Other Ecuador-Colombia Peru and south In South America In Peru Chile Birrell 1948
1948 LGT Tehuantepec South-Central Mexico Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan Southern Veracruz Usumacinta Central America Simmons 1948
1950 LGT Tehuantepec South-Central Mexico Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan Southern Veracruz Usumacinta? Central America Ferguson-Hunter 1950
1950 LGT Other Unclear Other Unclear Other Central America Stout 1950
1951 LGT Tehuantepec South-Central Mexico Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan Southern Veracruz? Unclear Central America? Hanson 1951
1954 LGT Other Yucatan Peninsula Unclear Guatemala Ulna Central America Pierce 1954
1955 LGT Tehuantepec South-Central Mexico Tehuantepec - El Salvador Southern Veracruz Grijalva Central America Sorenson 1955
1958 HGT Panama Panama to NY South America New York Unclear Central America Dixon 1958
1959 LGT Tehuantepec? Unclear Tehuantepec - El Salvador? Central Mexico? Usumacinta Chile Hammond 1959
1960 LGT no  data Elieson 1960
1960 LGT Honduras Bay Guatemala Other Guatemala Unclear Central America Lowe 1960a
1960 LGT Other Unclear Other Southern Veracruz? Usumacinta Central America Lowe 1960b
1960 LGT Tehuantepec South-Central Mexico Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan Central Mexico Usumacinta? Central America? Vincent 1960?
1960 LGT Tehuantepec? South-Central Mexico Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan Central Mexico Usumacinta Central America Warren 1960
1961 LGT Unclear South-Central Mexico Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan Southern Veracruz Usumacinta Central America Warren 1961
1964 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Ludlow n.d.
1966 LGT Tehuantepec? South-Central Mexico Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan? Unclear Usumacinta Central America Norman 1966
1969 LGT Belize-Yucatan base Yucatan Peninsula Unclear Guatemala? Ulna Central America Christensen 1969
1970 LGT Other Unclear Other Southern Veracruz? Usumacinta Central America? Lowe 1970s
1975 LGT Other Ecuador-Colombia Other In South America Unclear Chile Priddis 1975
1975 LGT Tehuantepec South-Central Mexico Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan Southern Veracruz? Usumacinta? Central America Steede 1975
1976 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Ludlow 1976
1976 LGT Tehuantepec South-Central Mexico Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan Southern Veracruz Usumacinta Unclear Loving 1976
1977 HGT Panama Panama to NY Other New York Maranon? Chile Le Poidevin 1977
1977 LGT Tehuantepec Yucatan Peninsula Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan Central Mexico Usumacinta Unclear DeLong 1977
1977 LGT Belize-Yucatan base Yucatan Peninsula Southern Guatemala Guatemala Usumacinta Unclear Robison 1977
1980 LGT Other Unclear Other Unclear Other Central America Ellsworth 1980
1980 LGT Tehuantepec South-Central Mexico Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan Southern Veracruz Ulna Central America Lesh 1980
1981 LGT Tehuantepec South-Central Mexico Tehuantepec - El Salvador Southern Veracruz Grijalva Central America Palmer 1981
1983 LGT Niagara peninsula Lower Canada? NY, Penn, Ohio New York Genesse New England coast Holley 1983
1985 LGT no data Covino 1985
1985 LGT Tehuantepec South-Central Mexico Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan Southern Veracruz Grijalva Central America Porritt 1985
1986 LGT Other Ecuador-Colombia Peru and south In South America In Peru Chile Kocherhans 1986
1987 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Nielson 1987
1987 LGT Unclear Unclear Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan Unclear Grijalva Unclear Sahlin 1987
1987 LGT Tehuantepec South-Central Mexico Tehuantepec - El Salvador Southern Veracruz Grijalva Central America Warren 1987
1988 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Proctor 1988
1988 HGT Panama Panama to NY South America Central Mexico Unclear Chile? Hobby-Smith 1988
1988 LGT Niagara Peninsula Unclear Other New York Unclear Unclear Curtis 1988
1988 LGT Other Unclear Southern Guatemala Southern Veracruz Other Central America Hauck 1988
1988 LGT Belize-Yucatan base Yucatan Peninsula Southern Guatemala Unclear Other Central America Qulter 1988
1989 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Clark 1989
1989 LGT Tehuantepec South-Central Mexico Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan Southern Veracruz Grijalva Central America Allen 1989
2001 LGT Olive 2001
2002 HGT Wunderli 2002
2002 LGT Niagara Peninsula New York/Upper Canada Eastern US/Midwest New York Mississippi Gulf of Mexico Goble-May 2002
2002 LGT Bridge over Samalá River (Mukulic-ya) at Santa Crúz Muluá, Guatemala Mam Culture, Western Pacific Piedmont of Guatemala Cotzumalhuapa Culture, Southern Pacific Piedmont of Guatemala. Cumarkah (Utatlán) Santa Crúz del Quiché, Guatemala. There are two -- Pantaleon (Alma 2:15) and Michatoya (Alma 16:6), Guatemala Acajutla, El Salvador Pate 2002
2003? LGT Niagara Peninsula Upper Canada Mississippi river system to Gulf of Mexico New York Mississippi Gulf of Mexico Meldrum 2003
2004 LGT Tehuantepec South-Central Mexico Southern Mesoamerica, incl Yucatan Tepetzintla (further North than Veracruz) Grijalva Central America Poulsen 2004
2004 LGT Very narrow area north of Buffalo, NY Lake Tonawanda to Lake Ontario Lake Tonawanda to Erie, PA Jaredite final battle at Rochester, NY; Nephite at NY site of plates Two: Buffalo River and Cazenovia Creek Presque Isle Bay in Erie, PA TRUE-BOMG
2004 LGT/HGT Tehuantepec From Tehuantepec Northward Mesoamerica/Preclassic Maya New York Undetermined Undetermined Goble 2004
2008 LGT no data Brandley 2008
2009 LGT Baja California Northern half of Baja Southern half of Baja Near El Marmol Rio San Ignacio Southern tip of Baja Rosenvall and Rosenvall 2009

Additional Resources:

Indians of the Great Lakes region and The Book of Mormon

Joseph Smith and Book of Mormon Geography

Joseph Smith and Book of Mormon geography

Joseph Smiths Book of Mormon geography

Basic Methodological Problems with the Anti-Mormon Approach to the Geography and Archaeology of the Book of Mormon –  by William J. Hamblin

Fair Issues 78: What is the correct Book of Mormon geography?, Miachael R. Ash

Fair Issues 77: What is the correct geography for the Book of Mormon?, Michael R. Ash

Book of Mormon Geography (PDF) (2008 FAIR Conference) by Larry Poulsen

Heartland as Hinterland: The Mesoamerican Core and North American Periphery of Book of Mormon Geography (2013 FAIR Conference) by Mark Alan Wright

A Key for Evaluating Nephite Geographies –   by John E. Clark

Book of Mormon 10 No Confirmed Locations by Michael Ash

Book of Mormon cities match Maya cities

Book of Mormon Geography

Book of Mormon Geography

Book of Mormon Geography, Old World

Geography of The Book of Mormon: the river Sidon

Archaeology and the Book of Mormon (PDF) by Michael Ash

Arabia and The Book of Mormon by Cooper Johnson

Arabia and the Book of Mormon (2001 FAIR Conference) by S. Kent Brown

Archaeological Evidence and the Book of Mormon by Michael Ash

FAIR Issues 20: Book of Mormon geography may be smaller than you think, Michael R. Ash

FAIR Issues 40: Two points about Book of Mormon geography, Michael R. Ash

Fair Issues 79: A consistent Book of Mormon map, Michael R. Ash

Articles of Faith 11: Neal Rappleye – “War of Words and Tumult of Opinions”: The Battle for Joseph Smith’s Words in Book of Mormon Geography, Neal Rappleye

Heartland as Hinterland: The Mesoamerican Core and North American Periphery of Book of Mormon GeographyMark Alan Wright

“War of Words and Tumult of Opinions”: The Battle for Joseph Smith’s Words in Book of Mormon Geography,Neal Rappleye

Deciphering the Geography of the Book of Mormon –  by Mark V. Withers

Interpreting Book of Mormon Geography –  by Randall P. Spackman

Joseph Smith, Revelation, and Book of Mormon Geography –  by Matthew Roper

Book of Mormon Geography in the Old World

Book of Mormon Geography in the New World

The Book of Mormon in a New World Setting by Brant Gardner

Journey of Faith: Book of Mormon Documentary

Journey of Faith: The New World video

Summary of Book of Mormon evidence and Geography by Steve Carr

Truth about Joseph Smith’s Beliefs on Geography of The Book of Mormon

LDS Temple dedicatory prayers and Book of Mormon geography

Ancient Mayan city Lamanai and The Book of Mormon

BOM Geography debate — 3 Unique Characteristics with Jerry Ainsworth

Book of Mormon 10 No Confirmed Locations by Michael Ash

Book of Mormon cities match Maya cities

Book of Mormon Geography

Book of Mormon Geography

Book of Mormon Geography, Old World

Geography of The Book of Mormon: the river Sidon

Heartland as Hinterland: Mesoamerican Core and North American Periphery of Book of Mormon Geography

In Search of Ancient Cumorah Segment 1

In Search of Ancient Cumorah segment 2

In Search of Ancient Cumorah segment 3

Indians of the Great Lakes region and The Book of Mormon

Joseph Smith and Book of Mormon Geography

Joseph Smith and Book of Mormon geography

Joseph Smiths Book of Mormon geography

Archaeology and the Book of Mormon (PDF) by Michael Ash

Arabia and The Book of Mormon by Cooper Johnson

Arabia and the Book of Mormon (2001 FAIR Conference) by S. Kent Brown

Archaeological Evidence and the Book of Mormon by Michael Ash

FAIR Issues 20: Book of Mormon geography may be smaller than you think, Michael R. Ash

FAIR Issues 40: Two points about Book of Mormon geography, Michael R. Ash

Fair Issues 79: A consistent Book of Mormon map, Michael R. Ash

Fair Issues 78: What is the correct Book of Mormon geography?, Miachael R. Ash

Fair Issues 77: What is the correct geography for the Book of Mormon?, Michael R. Ash

Book of Mormon Geography (PDF) (2008 FAIR Conference) by Larry Poulsen

Heartland as Hinterland: The Mesoamerican Core and North American Periphery of Book of Mormon Geography (2013 FAIR Conference) by Mark Alan Wright

A Key for Evaluating Nephite Geographies –   by John E. Clark

Basic Methodological Problems with the Anti-Mormon Approach to the Geography and Archaeology of the Book of Mormon –  by William J. Hamblin

Articles of Faith 11: Neal Rappleye – “War of Words and Tumult of Opinions”: The Battle for Joseph Smith’s Words in Book of Mormon Geography, Neal Rappleye

Heartland as Hinterland: The Mesoamerican Core and North American Periphery of Book of Mormon GeographyMark Alan Wright

Axes Mundi: Ritual Complexes in Mesoamerica and the Book of MormonMark Alan Wright

“War of Words and Tumult of Opinions”: The Battle for Joseph Smith’s Words in Book of Mormon Geography,Neal Rappleye

Deciphering the Geography of the Book of Mormon –  by Mark V. Withers

Interpreting Book of Mormon Geography –  by Randall P. Spackman

Joseph Smith, Revelation, and Book of Mormon Geography –  by Matthew Roper

Book of Mormon Geography in the Old World

Book of Mormon Geography in the New World

The Book of Mormon in a New World Setting by Brant Gardner

Journey of Faith: Book of Mormon Documentary

Journey of Faith: The New World video

Summary of Book of Mormon evidence and Geography by Steve Carr

Truth about Joseph Smith’s Beliefs on Geography of The Book of Mormon

LDS Temple dedicatory prayers and Book of Mormon geography

Ancient Mayan city Lamanai and The Book of Mormon

BOM Geography debate — 3 Unique Characteristics with Jerry Ainsworth

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