Mormon Polygamy Documents Timeline

Chronology for the Joseph Smith Era Plural Marriage



In 1872, Brigham Young said that Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery received a revelation concerning plural marriage while they were translating the Book ofMormon.1


[The Book of Mormon states in Jacob 21: r23] But the word of God burdens me because of your grosser crimes. For behold, thus saith the Lord: This people begin to wax in iniquity; they understand not the scriptures, for they seek to excuse themselves in committing whoredoms, because of the things which were written concerning David, and Solomon his son. [24] Behold, David and Solomon truly had many wives and concubines, which thing was abominable before me, saith the Lord...[27] Wherefore, my brethren, hear me, and hearken to the word of the Lord; For there shall not any man among you have save it be one wife; and concubines he shall have none; [28] For I, the Lord God, delight in the chastity of women. And whoredoms are a abomination before me; thus saith the Lord of Hosts...[30] For if I will, saith the Lord of Hosts, raise up seed unto me, I will command my people; otherwise they shall hearken unto these things. [31] For behold, I, the Lord, have seen the sorrow, and heard the mourning of the daughters of my people in the land of Jerusalem, yea, and in all the lands of my people, because of the wickedness and abominations of their husbands. [32] And I will not suffer, saith the Lord of Hosts, that the cries of the fair daughters of this people, which I have led out of the land of Jerusalem, shall come up unto me against the men of my people, saith the Lord of Hosts.2


Ether 10 states: [5] "And it came to pass that Riplakish did not do that which was right in the sight of the Lord,for he did have many wives and concubines, and did lay that upon men's shoulders which was grievous to be borne; yea, he did tax them with heavy taxes; and with the taxes he did build many spacious buildings."3


"Levi Lewis states, that he has 'been acquainted with Joseph Smith Jr. and Martin Harris, and that he has heard them both say, adultery was not crime. Harris said he did not blame Smith for his (Smith's) attempt to seduce Eliza Winters &c... '4 [Levi Lewis was Emma Hale Smith's first cousin, who lived in Harmony, Pennsylvania when Joseph Smith was translating the Book of Mormon. Elizabeth Winter Squires, a friend of Emma, lived in Harmony also. She never accused Joseph Smith of improper conduct.5]


1830 Jun

At a trial in South Bainbridge, two daughters of Josiah Stowell were called to testify concerning Joseph Smith's character. The History of the Church records: " ... the court was detained for a time, in order that two young women, daughters of Mr. Stoa! [sic], with whom I had at times kept company, might be sent for, in order, if possible, to elicit something from them which might be made a pretext against me. The young ladies arrived, and were severally examined touching my character and conduct in general, but particularly as to my behavior towards them, both in public and private; when they both bore such testimony in my favor as left my enemies without a pretext on their account. .. "6

1830 Oct

[W.W.] Phelps s[ai]d [on 27 February 1845] 6 or 8 went over the boundaries of the U.S. to preach - Jos. went to prayer - he then [?] a revelation. That Martin [Harris?] was to marry among the Lamanites - c that I was to preach [?] day- &c &c it was a long revelation - we have a living constitution - there is enough for every day - if we die let us all die together, c there will be a jolly lot of spirits dancing into the next world - it won't be to hell, for there is no fiddles there---7


At a meeting in Plano, Illinois, September 12, 1878, Orson Pratt stated that Lyman Johnson told him that Joseph Smith told Johnson in 1831 "...that plural marriage was a correct principle... " and "...that God had revealed it to him, but that the time had not come to teach or practice it in the Church, but that the time would come... "8

[A report of the funeral of Elizabeth Ann Whitney in February 1882, states that Joseph F. Smith said:] Here the speaker said, perhaps for the first time in public, that the women who entered into plural marriage with the Prophet Joseph Smith were shown to him and named to him as early as 1831, and some of them were given in marriage to him as early as that date, although it was not then prudent, under the circumstances, to make these facts public. And when the Lord showed those women to Joseph some of them were not even acquainted with the Church much less him. God knew their hearts, as is proved by the fact that they have been true and faithful through all the trying vicissitudes through which they have passed, and that too in the face of a frowning world; they have endured it all, and are today examples of womanhood and purity.9

At a quarterly Stake conference held at Centerville, Davis County, Utah, June 11, 1883. "Elder Joseph B. Noble next addressed the conference. He stated that the Prophet Joseph told him that the doctrine of celestial marriage was revealed to him while he was engaged on the work of translation of the Scriptures, but when the communication was first made the Lord stated that the time for the practice of that principle had not arrz.ved . ,,10

Helen Mar Whitney wrote in 1884, "The Lord revealed [plural marriageJ to His prophet, Joseph Smith, as early as the year 1831. "11

Joseph F. Smith taught in 1886, "The great and glorious principle of plural marriage was first revealed to Joseph Smith in 1831, but beingforbidden to make it public, or to teach it as a doctrine of the Gospel at that time, he confided the facts to only a few of his intimate associates. "12


1831 Jul 17

W.W. Phelps wrote to Brigham Young on 12 August 1861 that Joseph Smith had a revelation on 17 July 1831 for the Lamanite missionaries which stated: " ... For it is my will, that, in time, ye should take unto you wives of the Lamanites and Nephites, that thier posterity may become white, delightsome and Just; for even now their females are more virtuous than the Gentiles ..."13 Phelps also stated: "About three years after this [was} given, I asked brother Joseph privately, how "we" that were mentioned in the revelation, could take "wives" from the natives, as we were all married men? He replied instantly, "In the same manner that Abraham took Hagar and Katurah; and Jacob took Rachel,

Bilhah and Zilpah, by revelation: the saints of the Lord are always directed by revelation. "14

1831 Sep20

Ezra Booth wrote to Edward Partridge concerning his trip back to Ohio after Zion's Camp travels, that:

"While descending the Missouri river, Peter and Frederick, two of my company, divulged a secret respecting Oliver, which placed his conduct on a parallel with Ziba's; for which Ziba was deprived of his Elder and Apostleship: "Let that which was bestowed upon Ziba, be taken from him, and let him stand as a member in the Church, and let him labor with his own hands with the brethren." And thus by commandment, poor Ziba, one of the twelve Apostles, is thrust down; while Oliver the scribe, also an Apostle, who had been guilty of similar conduct, is set on high, to prepare work for the press; and no commandment touches him, only to exalt him higher. -- These two persons stated, that had they known previous to their journey to Missouri, what they then knew, they never should have accompanied Oliver thither. "15 [Some scholars have felt Peterson was guilty of fornication. 16]

1831 Dec 6

Ezra Booth wrote concerning the Lamanite missionaries in a letter, which was published in The Ohio Star newspaper.

"...In addition to this, and to co-operate with it, it has been made known by revelation, that it will be pleasing to the Lord, should they form a matrimonial alliance with the Natives; and by this means the Elders, who comply with the thing so pleasing to the Lord, and for which the Lord has promised to bless those who do it abundantly, gain a residence in the Indian territory, independent of the agent. It has been made known to one, who has left his wife in the State of N Y that he is entirely_free from his wife, and he is at liberty to take him a wife from among the Lamanites. It was easily perceived that this permission was perfectly suited to his desires. I have frequently heard him state, that the Lord has made it known to him, that he is as free from his wife as from any other woman; and the only crime that I have ever heard alleged against her is, she is violently opposed to Mormonism. But before this contemplated marriage can be carried into effect, he must return to the State of N Y. and settle his business, for fear, should he return, after that affair had taken place, the civil authority would apprehend him as a criminal ... 11


Joseph F. Smith stated on July 7, 1878 in the Salt Lake Tabernacle:

" ...To put this matter more correctly before you, I here declare that the principle of plural marriage was not first revealed on the 12th day of July, 1843. It was written for the first time on, that date, but it had been revealed to the Prophet many years before that, perhaps as early as 1832. About this time, or subsequently, Joseph, the Prophet, intrusted [sicJ this fact to Oliver Cowdery; he abused the confidence imposed in him, and brought reproach upon himself, and thereby upon the church by "running before he was sent," and "taking liberties without license, "so to speak, hence the publication, by 0. Cowdery, about this time, of an article on marriage, which was carefully worded, and afterwards found its way into the Doctrine and Covenants without authority. This article explains itself to those who understand the facts, and is an indisputable evidence of the early existence of the knowledge of the principle of patriarchal marriage by the Prophet Joseph. and also by Oliver Cowdery ..."18


1832 Nov

William E. McLellin wrote to Joseph Smith Ill in July 1872:

" ... You will probably remember that I visited your Mother and family in 1847, and held a lengthy conversation with her, retired in the Mansion House in Nauvoo. I did not ask her to tell but I told her some stories I had heard. And she told me whether I was properly informed. Dr. F. G. Williams practiced with me in Clay Co. Mo. during the latter part of 1838. And he told me that at your birth your father committed an act with a Miss Hill-a hired girl. Emma saw him, and spoke to him. He desisted, but Mrs. Smith refused to be satisfied. He called in Dr. Williams, 0. Cowdery, and S. Rigdon to reconcile Emma. But she told them just as the circumstances took place. He found that he was caught. He confessed humbly, and begged forgiveness. Emma and al/forgave him.19



Anthony Metcalf interviewed Martin Harris in the winter of 1873-74. Metcalfreported that Martin Harris said " ...the servant girl of Joe Smith stated that the prophet had made improper proposals to her, which created quite a talk amongst the people. Joe Smith went to Martin Harris to counsel with him concerning the girl's talk. Harris, supposing that Joe was innocent told him to take no notice of the girl, that she was full of the devil, and wanted to destroy the prophet of God; but Joe Smith acknowledged that there was more truth than poetry in what the girl said. Harris then said he would have nothing to do in the matter. Smith could get out of the trouble the best way he knew how... "20


Affidavit of W. R. Hine states:

" ... One day while I was at the [Kirtland] Flats, a meeting was held in which the Spiritual Wife Doctrine was discussed. Rigdon said if he had got to go into it he might as well begin. He put Emma, Jo Smith's wife, on the bed and got on himself. Jo became angry. It was in everybody's mouth for miles about Kirtland... "21


Benjamin F. Johnson stated that: "In talking with my mother [Julia Hills Johnson] after the revelation on plural marriage was given he [Joseph Smithj told her that when the Lord required him to move in plural marriage, that his first thought was to come and ask herfor some of her daughters; and I can now understand that the period alluded to was at Kirtland, where she had three unmarried daughters at home, two of whom died there, and Almira, the other, was sealed to him in Nauvoo; the other two, Nancy M and Susan E. being sealed by proxy since his death. "22

1834 Sep 4

Orson Hyde married Marinda Johnson, the daughter of John Johnson and Alice (Elsa) Jacob Johnson in Kirtland, Ohio.23 Joseph Smith's 1843 journal says, "Apr[il} [18)42 Marinda Johnson to Joseph Smith... " This entry is in the handwriting of Thomas Bullock.24 Marinda Johnson Hyde's 1869 affidavit says that she was married to Joseph Smith in May 1843 25


Oliver H. Olney, son-in-law of John and Elisa Johnson, wrote in 1843, "Polygamy was first introduced in Kirtland, Ohio, about eight years ago. "26

Benjamin F. Johnson stated: " ... In 1835, at Kirtland, I learned from my sister's husband, Lyman B. Sherman, who was close to the Prophet, and received it from him, "that the ancient order of Plural Marriage was again to be practiced by the Church." This, at the time, did not impress my mind deeply, although there lived then with his family (the Prophet's) a neighbor's daughter, Fannie Alger, a very nice and comely young woman about my own age, toward whom not only myself, but every one, seemed partial, for the amiability of her character; and it was whispered even then that Joseph loved her... "27

1835 June

W. W. Phelps wrote in a letter to Oliver Cowdery which was published in the Messenger and Advocate:

"...We shall by and bye learn that we were with God in another world, before the foundation of the world, and had our agency; that we came into this world and have our agency, in order that we may prepare ourselves for a kingdom of glory; become archangels, even the sons of God where the man is neither without the women, nor the woman without the man in the Lord; A consummation of glory, and happiness, and perfection so greatly to be wished, that I would not miss of it for the fame of ten warlds.. ,,28

1835 Aug 11

Mary Elizabeth Rollins married non-Mormon, Adam Lightner of Liberty, Clay County, Missouri29 Later in February 1842 she was sealed to Joseph Smith.30

1835 Aug 17

A general assembly of the Church was held at Kirtland, Ohio "for the purpose of arranging the items of the doctrine of Jesus Christ for the government of the Church... "

W.W. Phelps read the Article on Marriage to be published in the Doctrine and Covenants. The congregation unanimously agreed to publish it. The article states that: "Inasmuch as this church of Christ has been reproached with the crime of fornication, and polygamy: we declare that we believe, that one man should have one wife; and one woman, but one husband, except in case of death, when either is at liberty to marry again." 31 Joseph Smith was not there.32

1835 Aug 28

Joseph Smith preached "on the duty of wives" in Kirtland. He had arrived back in Kirtland from his visit to Michigan August 23.33

1837 Spring

Fanny Brewer gave an affidavit which stated:

Testimony of Fanny Brewer, of Boston Boston, September I 3, 1842

To the Public:-- I have long desired that some one who had a certain knowledge of the hidden practices and abominations at Nauvoo, would have the moral courage to come out, with a full development; and my desires have been realized in General Bennett's disclosures. As the ice is now broken, I, too, have a tale to tell. In the spring of 1837, I left Boston for Kirtland, in all good faith, to assemble with the Saints, as I thought, and worship God more perfectly On my arrival, I found brother going to law with brother, drunkenness prevailing to a great extent, and every species of wickedness...There was much excitement against the Prophet, on another account, likewise,-- an unlawful intercourse between himself and a young orphan girl residing in his family, and under his protection!!! Mr. Martin Harris told me that the Prophet was most notorious for lying and licentiousness!! In the fall of 1837, the Smith family all left Kirtland, by revelation, (or necessity) for Missouri... 34


1837 May

The Presidents of the Seventies published in the Messenger and Advocate, resolutions concerning conduct of those called "to proclaim the gospel." It states that: "That we will have no fellowship whatsoever with any Elder belonging to the quorums of the Seventies who is guilty of polygamy or any offence of the kind.    "35

1837 Nov

An editorial in the Elder 's Journal mentions that people ask if Mormons have "more wives than one."   36


1837 Nov 29

The Kirtland Elders Quorum charged Solomon Freeman with polygamy.

The minutes state: "...the charge that was perfered before the quorum against Elder Sollomon [sic} Freeman by William Perry for the crime of polygamy was brought forward. Elder Freeman plead not gilty of the charge [} [T}estimony for the Complainent came forward (Dexter Stilman) and Stated the Elder Freeman had a wife in To/Ian township Co. of Berksheir in Mass. And it was told him there that he (E. Freeman) Came a way [without his] wife Elder Harlow Redfield Stated that when he and Elder Stilman went to See Elder Freeman. Elder Freeman ackno[wjloged that he come away and left his wife as was testified Elder Freeman ackno[w]loged before the quorum that he had left his first wife came away with and Soon Commenced living with another woman he further Stated he did not know but his first wife was yet living he further Stated he would not go acros [sicJ the room to obtain a bill from her Elder Freeman Manifest a Car[e]less indifferent spirit." 37 It is not recorded what the quorum did about the issue.

1838 Jan 21

Oliver Cowdery wrote to his brother, Warren Cowdery concerning his conflict with Joseph Smith:

...I never confessed intimated <or admitted> that 1 ever willfully lied about him [Joseph Smithj. When he was here we had some conversation in which in every instance, I did not fail to affirm that what I had said was strictly true A dirty, nasty, filthy of his and Fanny Algers was talked over in which I strictly declared that 1 had never deviated from the truth on the matter, and as I supposed was admitted by himself ..38

1838 Apr 12

The Far West Minute Book has the following as part of the Oliver Cowdery trial:

George W Harris testfies that one evening last fall 0. Cowdery was at his house together with Joseph Smith Jr., and Thomas B. Marsh, when a conversation took place between Joseph Smith Jr & 0. Cowdery, when he semmed to insinuate that Joseph Smith Jr was guilty of adultery, but when the question was put, ifhe (Joseph) had ever acknowledged to him that he was quilty of such a thing; when he answered No. Also he believes him to be instrumental in causing so many lawsuits as had taken place of late.

David W Patten testifies, that he went to Oliver Cowdery to enquire of him if a certain story was true respecting J Smith's committing adultery with a certain girl, when he turned on his heel and insinuated as though he was guilty; he then went on and gave a history of some circumstances respecting the adultery scrape stating that no doubt it was true. Also said that Joseph told him, he had corifessed to Emma, Also that he has used his influence to urge on lawsuits.

Thomas B. Marsh testifies that while in Kirtland last summer, David W Patten asked Oliver Cowdery if he Joseph Smith Jr. had confessed to his wife that he was guilty of adultery with a certain girl, when Oliver Cowdery cocked up his eye very knowingly and hesitated to answer the question, saying he did not know as he was bound to answer the question yet conveyed the idea that it was true. Last fall after Oliver came to this place he heard a conversation take place between Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery when J Smith asked him if he had ever confessed to him that he was guilty of adultery, when after a considerable winking &c. he said No. Joseph then asked him ifhe ever told him that he corifessed to any body, when he answered No.

Joseph Smith Jr testifies that Oliver Cowdery had been his bosom friend, therefore he in/rusted him with many things. He then gave a history respecting the girl business...39


1838 Apr 21

Joseph Smith performed the marriage between Windsor Lyon and Sylvia Sessions.40 Later Sylvia Sessions Lyon would be sealed to Joseph Smith.41

1838 Apr 28

The High Council at Far West investigated the case of Aaron C. Lyon which was appealed from an eider's court. He is charged with telling Sarah Jackson that her husband was dead and that " ... the Lord had revealed to him that she was to be his wife." He was a widower. Sarah's husband was found to be alive. Lyon " ... made confession to the satisfaction of the Council, when it was decided that Br. Lyons be retained in the Church, but his license be taken from him... " Joseph Smith had been asked to replace one of the members of the council. The clerk recorded that there was " ... some lengthy remarks by the Councellors, and very good instruction given by Councellor Smith... "42

1838 July

The questions from the editorial were answered in the next issue of the Elder 's Journal which was published in July 1838 in Far West, Missouri. It states:

Question 7th. Do the Mormons believe in having more wives than one. [sic} Answer. No, not at the same time. But they believe that if their companion dies, they have a right to marry again. But we do disapprove of the custom which has gained in the world, and has been practised [sicJ among us; to our great mortification, of marrying in five or six weeks, or even in two or three months after the death of their companion. We believe that due respect ought to be had, to the memory of the dead, and the feelings of both friends and children.43

1838 Dec 16

Joseph Smith wrote from Liberty, Missouri to the Saints in Caldwell County, Missouri:

"... Therefore we say again unto you we are innocent of these things they have represented us falsely Was it for committing adultery, we are aware that false slander has gone abroad for it has been reiterated in our ears. These are falsehoods also.

Renegadoes, mormon dissenters are running through the world and spreading various foul and libelous reports against us thinking thereby to gain the friendship of the world because they knew that we are not of the world and that the world hates us; therefore they make a tool of these fellows...We have heard that it has been reported by some that some of us should have said that we not only dedicated our property but our families also to the Lord, and satan taking advantage of this has transfigured it into lasciviousness such as a community of wives which is an abomination in the sight of God. When we consecrate our property to the Lord it is to administer to the wants of the poor and needy for this is the law of God it is not.for the purpose of the rich those who have no need and when a man consecrates or dedicates his wife and children he does not give them to his brother or to his neighbor for there is no such law for the law of God is thou shalt not commit adultery thou shalt not covet they neighbor's wife. He that looketh upon a woman to lust after her has committed adultery already in his heart..."44


Franklin D. Richards, in northern Indiana, met a woman that had lived at Kirtland and her name was Sister Akers. She stated "that the doctrine of 'spiritual wives' as she then learned it, was a true doctrine, that it had been revealed to the Prophet Joseph Smith and would sometime be put in practice in the Church-that it was not then permitted, but that I [Elder RichardsJ would live to see it taught, accepted, lived in and practically adopted as a doctrine and ordinance of the Church..."45

Bathsheba Smith testified in the Temple Lot Case, March 1892 that: "...I heard Joseph Smith once in speaking from the stand say or assert that the ancient order would be restored the same as it was in Abraham's day, but I never heard him preach in private or public the principle of plural marriage, or what is sometimes called polygamy. He said the ancient order would be restored as it was in the days of Abraham. That was about 1840, I think... " 46

1841 Jan 23

Ruth D. Vose married to Edward Sayers by Albert P. Rockwood at St. Louis, Missouri.47 Ruth was sealed to Joseph Smith in February 1843 48 and she lived with Edward Sayers, a non-member, in Nauvoo and Salt Lake City.49

1841 Mar 7

Zina D. Huntington married to Henry B. Jacobs by John C. Bennett.50 Zina Huntington was sealed to Joseph Smith, October 27, 1841 51

1841 Apr 5

LOUISA BEAMAN sealed to JOSEPH SMITH by her brother-in-law, Joseph Bates Noble52

1841 Jul 5

George A. Smith wrote to Joseph Smith III: "I returned to Nauvoo from this [British] mission in July 1841.53 At one of the first interviews thereafter with your father I was greatly astonished at hearing from his lips the doctrine of Patriarchal marriage which he continued to preach to me from time to time... "54


1841 Fall

Melissa Schindle said that she was staying in Nauvoo in the fall of 1841 and Joseph Smith asked to sleep with her. She said that he said that " was the will of the Lord that he should have illicit intercourse with her... " He offered to pay her five dollars. She refused.55

1841 Oct 15

The Times and Seasons reprinted an article from the St. Louis Atlas which reported a visit of a non-Mormon to Nauvoo who stated that Mormonism "is a faith which they say encourages no vice, nor immorality, nor departure from established laws and usages; neither polygamy, nor promiscuous intercourse, nor community of property.56

1841 Oct27

ZINA HUNTINGTON JACOBS sealed to JOSEPH SMITH57 by her brother, Dimick B. Huntington and witnessed by his wife, Fanny Huntington. Zina wrote: " ..Jmad[e} a greater sacrifice than to give my li(j}e for I never anticipated again to be looked upon as an honorable woman by those I dearly loved ..."58

1841 Dec 2

Joseph Smith received the following revelation for Nancy Marinda Johnson Hyde.

"Verily thus saith the Lord unto you my Servant Joseph, that inasmuch as you have called upon me to know my Will concerning my handmaid Nancy Marinda Hyde, Behold it is my Will that she should have a better place prepared for her, than that in which she now lives, in order that her life may be spared unto her; Therefore go and say unto my Servant Ebenezer Robinson, and to my hand maid his Wife, Let them open their doors and take her and her children into their house, and take care of them faithfully and kindly until my servant Orson Hyde returns from his mission, or until some other provision can be made for her welfare and safety; Let them do these things and spare not grudgingly saith the Lord God. and she shall be a blessing unto them, and let my handmaid Nancy Marinda Hyde hearken to the council of my Servant Joseph in all things whatsoever he shall teach unto her, and it shall be a blessing upon her and upon her children after her, unto her justification, saith the Lord,.,59

1841 Dec 11

Joseph Smith's 1843 journal says, "Apr[il] [18]42 Marinda Johnson to Joseph Smith..." This entry is in the handwriting of Thomas Bullock.60 Marinda Johnson Hyde's 1869 affidavit says that she was married to Joseph Smith in May 1843.61

1841 Dec 15

PRESENDIA HUNTINGTON BUELL sealed to JOSEPH SMITH62 by her brother, Dimick B. Huntington and witnessed by his wife, Fanny Huntington

The Times and Seasons published an article cautioning members of the Church against Dr. William Campbell, alias Samuel Rogers, who joined Church and married a young lady. They go on to state: "It has since been ascertained that he has two others [sic] wives, one in Ohio, and the other in this State [Illinois]. He undoubtedly joined the church for a cloak to his iniquity."63


In Conference, October 8, 1866, in Salt Lake City, Brigham Young stated: "Right north of the Masonic Hall in Nauvoo the ground was not fenced; this was in the year 1842.

There were some rails laid along to fence up some lots. Hyrum saw me and said, 'brother Brigham, I want to talk to you. ' We went together and sat upon those rails that were [?} up. He commenced by saying: 'I have a question to ask you. In the first place I say[?J to you, that I do know that you and the Twelve knows some things that I do not know. I can understand this by the motions and talk and doings of Joseph, and I know there is something or other which I do not understand, that is revealed to the Twelve. Is this so?' I replied. I do not know anything about what you know, but I know what I know.

Then he said, '/ have mistrusted[? J for a long time that Joseph has received a revelation that a man should have more than one wife, and he has hinted as much to me, but I would not bear it. '...I said to him, 'brother Hyrum, I will tell you about this thing which you do not know if you will swear with an uplifted hand before God, that you will never say another word against Joseph and his doings, and the doctrine he is preaching to the people. 'He replied, 'I will do it with all my heart and he stood upon his feet, saying, 'I want to know the truth and to be saved. And he made a covenant there, never again to bring forward one argument or use any influence against Joseph's doings. Joseph had many wives sealed to him. I told Hyrum the whole story, and he bowed to it and wept like a child, and said God be praised. He went to Joseph and told him what he had learned, and renewed his covenant with Joseph, and they went heart and hand together while they lived, and they were together when they died, and they are together now defending 1srael... ,64

John Wickliff Rigdon stated that Joseph Smith asked his sister Nancy Rigdon to become his plural wife and she turned him down. That may have been in 1842. 65


1842 Jan 6


1842 Feb 8


1842 Feb (late)


"Well, I talked with him [Joseph Smith] for a long time and finally I told him I would never be sealed to him until I had a witness...! made it a subject of Prayer...A few nights after that an angel of the Lord came to me...! went forward and was sealed to him.

Brigham Young performed the sealing and Heber C. Kimball the blessing..."68

1842 (early)

Joseph Smith taught Sarah M. Kimball about plural marriage. Sarah's husband, Hirum Kimball was not a member of the Church at that time. Sarah stated: "Early in the year 1842, Joseph Smith taught me the principle of marriage for eternity, and the doctrine of plural marriage." She rejected the principle.69

1842 Mar 9

PATTY BARTLETT SESSIONS sealed to JOSEPH SMITH70 She wrote " ... was sealed to Joseph Smith the Prophet by Willard Richards, March the 9th 1842 in Nauvoo. In Newel K. Whitneys chamber, Sylvia my daughter was present. ..I received my Endowment in Nauvoo, Dec 16 1845. I never was sealed at the altar to any one."71

1842 Mar 17

Joseph Smith organized the Female Relief Society of Nauvoo.72

1842 Mar 24

The minutes of the Female Relief Society of Nauvoo state "...Prest E. Smith rose and read from the Book of records, the proceedings of the first meeting of the Society She then proceeded to read to the honorable body, a report, wherein Clarissa Marvel was accused of scandalous falsehoods on the character of Prest. Joseph Smith, without the least provocation praying that they would in wisdom adopt some plan to bring her to repentance - said she presumed that most of the Society knew more about Clarissa Marvel than herself---

Mrs. Agnes Smith said that Clarissa Marvel had lived with her nearly a year -she had seen nothing amiss of her.

Councillor [sic} Whitney proposed that someone be appointed to go and labor with her and if possible reform her.

Moved and carried that Mrs. Markham be [the} one to go and converse with C Marvel

Mrs. Markham objected on the ground that she was unacquainted with the circumstances.

Prest. Smith said that would make no difference. She could attend to it-that it should be done in a private manner with great patience.

Then, Prest. continued by saying that we intended to look into the morals of each other and watch over each other-that she intended to walk[?J and to [?J the

appearance of evil -all are required to be very careful in their words and actions at all times-said she believed Clarissa Marvel might be reformed.

Mrs. Billings inquired if CM    had parents.

Prest. Smith said she had no parents-she is under our care and observation-she needs frz.end s... ,,73

1842 Mar 30

The minutes of the Female Relief Society of Nauvoo state: "...Prest. J Smith withdrew Prest. E. Smith rose & said she would like to hear from those appointed to enquire in to the case of Clarissa M

Mrs. Billings said I visited her, questioned her closely-she appeared like an innocent girl.

Mrs. Markham corroborated the statement of Mrs. Billings.

Prest. E. S. said, We are called upon to find the origin of the report­ Mrs. Billings referred to Mrs. Winchester with whom CM had resided.

Mrs. W Had heard C M speak of Pres J Smith's family in the most respectful manner

Councillor [sic} Cleveland proposed that the rumor be[?] out and the innocent cleared-

Mrs. Gribble said Laura Jones & Hannah Burgess have reported against CM Councillor [sic} Whitney motioned that 2 persons be appointed to see L. Jones &

H B. carried unanly [sic] 74

1842 Apr


Joseph Smith's 1843 journal says, "Apr[il] [18)42 Marinda Johnson to Joseph Smith..." This entry is in the handwriting of Thomas Bullock.76 Marinda Johnson Hyde's 1869 affidavit says that she was married to Joseph Smith in May 1843 77

1842 Spring

In 1885, Emily Dow Partridge Young wrote: "The first intimation I had from Brother Joseph that there was a pure and holy-order of plural marriage, was in the spring of 1842, but I was not married until 1843 [May 11, 1843] 78

1842 Apr 4

The minutes of the Female Relief Society of Nauvoo state: "Prayer by Prest Emma Smith after which Councillor [sic} Cleveland arose and addressed the meeting informing them that the case a/Clarissa M had been satisfactorily settled. She having testified in her own hand writing that she had said no wrong &c. Mrs. C continued by cautioning the Society against speaking evil of Prest J Smith and his companion that it would not be a light thing in the sight a/God that they had proved themselves; and the case ofC. M should be a warning how we hear and how we speak exposed her [?J that the Lord would cut off those who will not take counsel &c.79

1842 Apr 10

Joseph Smith's journal states, "Preached in the grove after Elder Wm Law, had spoken, a[nd] pronounced a curse upon all Adulterers &fornicators & unvirtuous.gersons, & those who had made use of his name to carry on their iniquitous designs." 80

1842 Apr 22

The Nauvoo High Council considered the case of Jess Turpin. He was charged by Benjaming L. Clapp of having committed adultery by marrying "another man's wife." They decided that there was " ... no evidences j;iven which would give any reason to believe that he had been guilty of the charge." 81

1842 Apr 29

Joseph Smith's journal states, "was made manifest a conspiracy against the peace of his household." Willard Richards has written "J.C.B." lightly in the margin which may refer to John C. Bennett.82

1842 May 11

Fellowship of the Church is withdrawn from John C. Bennett.83

1842 May 17

John C. Bennett made an affidavit, before Daniel H. Wells, Nauvoo alderman, stating that "...that he never was taught any thing in the least contrary to the strictest principles of the Gospel, or of virtue, or of the laws a/God, or man, under any circumstances, or upon any occasion either directly or indirectly, in word or deed, by Joseph Smith; and that he never knew the said Smith to countenance any improper conduct whatever, either in public or private; and that he never did teach to me in private that an illegal illicit intercourse with females was, under any circumstances, justifiable, and that I never knew him so to teach others."84 Bennett later stated that Joseph Smith pulled a gun on him and said that he would kill him if he did not make this statement.85

John C. Bennett resigned as mayor of Nauvoo.86

1842 May 19

Joseph Smith was elected mayor of Nauvoo and John C. Bennett, ex-mayor was called upon to state if he knew anything against Joseph Smith. Bennett stated, "/ publicly avow that any one who has said that I have stated that General Joseph Smith has given me authority to hold illicit intercourse with women is a Liar in the face of God...He never either in public or private gave me any such authority or /icense...Joseph, will you please state definitely whether you know anything against my character either in public or private? Answer by Gen Bennet [sic}, 'I do not. In all my intercourse with General Smith, in public & in private he has been strictly virtuous."'87

1842 May 24

Margaret J, Nyman, Matilda Nyman, Sarah Miller, and Catharine Warren testified before the Nauvoo High Council. Margaret J. Nyman said that Chauncey L Higbee had told her Joseph Smith said: "That any respectable female might indulge in sexual intercourse, and there was no sin in it providing the person so indulging keep the same to herself; for there could be no sin, where there was no accuser, .. [Sarah Miller said] I told him it might be told in bringing forth. Chauncey said there was no danger, and that Dr. Bennet understood it, and would come and take it away, if there was any thing... (Matilda J. Nyman stated) "I further testify that I never had any personal acquaintance with Joseph Smith and never heard him teach such doctrines as Higbee, stated either directly or indirectly. " These testimonies were published in the Nauvoo Neighbor, May 29, 1844.88

1842 June 14

Lucy Ann Decker Seeley sealed to Brigham Young by Joseph Smith in the presence of Willard Richards.89

1842 June 15

The Times and Seasons published a notice dated May 11, 1842, concerning withdrawing fellowship from John C. Bennett. The notice stated: "... members of the first Presidency of the church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, withdraw the hand of fellowship from Gen. John C. Bennett, as a Christian; he having been labored with from time to time, to persuade him to amend his conduct, apparently to no good effect.

Joseph Smith, Hyrum Smith, Wm. Law"90

1842 June 25

The Wasp published an article by Joseph Smith concerning John C. Bennett. In the article Joseph Smith wrote " ...Had he [John C. Bennett] only been guilty ofadultry [sic], that was sufficient to stamp disgrace upon him because he is a man of better information, and has been held high in the estimation of many. But when it is considered that his mind was so intent upon his cruel, and abominable deeds, and his own reputation not being sufficient to enable him to do it, he must make use ofmy name in order to effect [sic} his purposes... ,,91

1842 July 1

The Times and Seasons published the same article by Joseph Smith concerning John C. Bennett.92

1842 July 2

John C. Bennett made an affidavit before a Justice of the Peace that Joseph Smith had forced him to make a positive affidavit concerning Joseph Smith on May 17. He also stated that Joseph Smith told him about his spiritual wives which Bennett names, but the newspaper did not publish their names.93


Melissa Schindle made a affidavit before a Justice of the Peace that she was staying in Nauvoo in the fall of 1841 and Joseph Smith asked to sleep with her. She said that he said that " was the will of the Lord that he should have illicit intercourse with her..." He offered to pay her five dollars. She refused.94

1842 July 8

John C. Bennett published an article in the Sangamo Journal concerning Joseph Smith. The article states: "...Joseph Smith, the great Mormon seducer, one who has seduced not only hundreds of single and married females, but more than the great Solomon, attempted to seduce Miss Nancy Rigdon, the eldest single daughter of Sidney Rigdon, to submit to his hellish purposes, and become one of his clandestine wives under the new dzspensatwn... ,,95

1842 July 13

Martha H. Brotherton made a statement before the Justice of the Peace in St. Louis County, Missouri that Heber C. Kimball, Brigham Young and Joseph Smith taught her about plural marriage. She said that Brigham Young asked her to be his wife and she reported the following conversation: "'Well,' said Young, 'sister Martha would be willing if she knew if was lawful and right before God.' 'Well, Martha,' said Joseph, 'it is lawful and right before God-- I know it is. Look here, sis; don't you believe in me?' I did not answer. 'Well Martha,' said Joseph, 'just go ahead, and do as Brigham wants you to -- he is the best man in the world, except me.'... 'Yes,' said Joseph, 'and I know that this is lawful and right before God, and if there is any sin in it, I will answer for it before God; and I have the keys of the kingdom, and whatever I bind on earth is bound in heaven, and whatever I loose on earth is loosed in heaven, and if you will accept of Brigham, you shall be blessed -- God shall bless you, and my blessing shall rest upon you; and if you will be led by him, you will do well; for I know Brigham will take care of you, and if he don't do his duty to you, come to me and I will make him; and if you do not like it in a month or two, come to me, and I will make you free again; and if he turns you off, I will take you on.'..."   96


1842 July 15

Joseph Smith's journal records: "This A.M early a report was in circulation that O[rsonj. P[ratt}. was missing. A letter of his writing was found directed to his wife stating to the effect that he was going away, Soon as this was known Joseph summoned the principal men of the city and workmen on the Temple to meet at the Temple Grove where he ordered them to proceed immediately throughout the city in search of him lest he should have laid voilent [violent] hands on himself...a meeting was called at the Grove where Joseph stated before the public a general outline of J. C. Bennetts conduct and especially with regard to Sis P [Sarah Pratt]. Met again in the P.M when Hyrum & H C. Kimball spake on the same subject after which Joseph arose and said that he would state to those present some things which he had heard respecting Edward & D[avid} Ki/bourn[e} being conspiring with J. C. Bennett in endeavoring to bring a Mob upon us...O. P[ratt} returned at night. He was seen about 2 miles this side Warsaw; set on a log. He says he has concluded to do right.97

The Sangamo Journal, a newspaper in Springfield, Illinois published John C. Bennett's letters "Two" and "Three" concerning Joseph Smith, spiritual wives and Danites. The article tells the story of Joseph Smith's approaches to Sarah Bates Pratt, Nancy Rigdon, Melissa Schindle and Martha Brotherton. 98

Thomas Smethurst makes a statement in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania    that he knew Martha Brotherton in England before she became a Mormon and she is virtuous and truthful. He also knows that she had to leave Nauvoo for her safety.99

1842 July 20

William Law signed an affidavit concerning the activities of John C. Bennett.100

1842 July 22

The citizens of the city of Nauvoo held a meeting to obtain an expression of the public mind in reference to the reports concerning the character of Joseph Smith. Orson Pratt spoke against Joseph Smith. "Joseph Smith spoke in reply-Question to Elder Pratt, 'Have you personally a knowledge of any immoral act in me toward the female sex, or in any other way?' Answer, by Elder 0. Pratt, 'Personally. toward the female sex, I have not.'

Elder O. Pratt responded at some length. Elder B. Young then spoke in reply, and was followed by Elders Wm. Law, H C. Kimball and Pres. H. Smith. Several others spoke bearing testimony of the iniquity of those who had calumniated Pres. J Smith's character101

Joseph Smith's journal records: "...a.m. at the stand conflicting with O[rson]. P[ratt]. and correcting the public mind with regard to reports put in circulation by [John] Bennett & Others. 102

Daniel H. Wells signed an affidavit concerning John C. Bennett's activities.103

Elias Higbee wrote a letter to the editor of the Times and Seasons stating that he was a "personal friend of Joseph Smith" and has "never yet seen or known any thing against him... "104

John C. Bennett's Fourth Letter is published in the Sangamo Journal. Martha H. Brotherton's affidavit is in that article.105


1842 July 25

Pamela M. Michael signed a statement that she knows nothing "derogatory to" Joseph Smith's "character, either as a Christian, or a moral man" and that Bennett made use of her name without her knowledge or consent.

1842 July 26

William Marks made a statement concerning John C. Bennett and Joseph Smith which states: " .. .I would further state that I know of no Order in the Church which admits of a plurality of wives, and do not believe that Joseph Smith ever taught such a doctrine ..."106

1842 July 28

Henry Marks made a statement concerning John C. Bennett and Joseph Smith which states: " ... I know nothing derogatory to the character of Joseph Smith, neither in a religious or a moral point of view; and that Doctor Bennett and the Journal used my name without my knowledge or consent..."107

1842 July 27

SARAH ANN WHITNEY sealed to JOSEPH SMITH108 by her father, Newell K. Whitney.

1842 July 29

ELIZA R. SNOW sealed to JOSEPH SMITH109 by Brigham Young.

1842 Aug


1842 Aug 1

An article in the Times and Seasons entitled "John C. Bennett" contained affidavits and other information concerning the activities of John C. Bennett. It stated:

There has always been, in every age of the church those who have been opposed to the principles of virtue ...He [Bennett] professed to be virtuous and chaste, yet did he pierce the heart of the innocent, introduce misery and infamy into families, ... he desecrate his name, and prostitute his authority to the most unhallowed and diabolical purposes; even to the seduction of the virtuous, and the defiling of his neighbor's bed...he gave his affidavit, and testified that Joseph Smith was a virtuous man-[then he said] that we believed in and practiced polygamy ... 111

Sidney Rigdon published a statement stating that: "As there seems to be some foolish notions that I have been engaged with J C. Bennett, in the difficulties between him and some of the citizens of this place [Nauvoo}, I mere7 say in reply to such idle and vain reports that they are without foundation in truth.112


1842 Aug 18

Joseph Smith wrote the following letter to Brother and Sister Newel K. Whitney:113

1842 Aug 19

1842 Aug 20

1842 Aug 27


Nauvoo August 18th 1842

Dear, and Beloved, Brother and Sister, Whitney, and &c.

I take this oppertunity to communi[cjate, some of my feelings, privetely at this time, which I want you three Eternaly to keep in your own bosams; for my feelings are so strong for you since what has pased lately between us, that the time of my abscence from you seems so long, and dreary, that it seems, as if I could not live long in this way: and <if you> three would come and see me in this my lonely retreat, it would afford me great relief, of mind, if those with whom I am alied, do love me; now is the time to afford me succour, in the days of exile,for you know I foretold you of these things. I am now at Carlos Graingers, Just back of Brother Hyrams farm, it is only one mile from town, the nights are very pleasant indeed, all three of you come <can> come and See me in the fore part of the night, let Brother Whitney come a little a head, and nock at the south East corner of the house at <the> window; it is next to the cornfield, I have a room inti=rely by myself, the whole matter can be attended to with most perfect safty, I <know> it is the will of God that you should comfort <me> now in this time of ajjliction, or not at[ta]l now is the time or never, but I hav[eJ no kneed of saying any such thing, to you, for I know the goodness of your hearts, and that you will do the will of the Lord, when it is made known to you; the only thing to be careful of; is to find out when Emma comes then you cannot be safe, but when she is not here, there is the most perfect safty: only be careful to escape observation, as much as possible, I know it is a heroick undertakeing; but so much the greater frendship, and the more Joy, when I see you I <will> tell you all my plans, I cannot write them on paper, burn this letter as soon as you read it; keep all locked up in your breasts, my life depends upon it. one thing I want to see you for is <to> git the fulness of my blessings sealed upon our heads, &c. you wi will pardon me for my earnest=ness on <this subject> when you consider how lonesome I must be, your good feelings know how to <make> every allowance for me, I close my letter, I think Emma wont come tonight if she dont dont fail to come to night, I subscribe myself your most obedient, <and> affectionate, companion, and friend. Joseph SmithJI4


John C. Bennett published in the Sangamo Journal newspaper a supposed letter from Joseph Smith to Nancy Rigdon. The letter said in part: "...lfwe seek first the kingdom of God, all good things will be added. So with Solomon -- first he asked wisdom, and God gave it him, and with it every DESIRE of his heart, even things which might be considered abominable to all who understand the order of heaven only in part, but which in reality, were right, because God gave and sanctioned by special revelation... ,,ns

Orson Pratt is cut off from the Church. Wilford Woodruff wrote in his diary that "Dr. John Cook Bennet [sic] was the ruin of Orson Pratt. ,,n6

In November 1855, Thomas Bullock, a clerk in the Church Historian's Office, copied into the manuscript of Joseph Smith's history, the letter of Joseph Smith to Nancy Rigdon on the date of August 27, 1842.117

1842 Aug 29

1842 Sep I

1842 Sep 3

1842 Sep4

Stephen Markham stated in an affidavit that John C. Bennett and Nancy Rigdon "were guilty of unlawful and illicit intercourse with each other."118

The Times and Seasons published the following:

"Inasmuch as the public mind has been unjustly abused through the fallacy of Dr. Bennett's letters, we make an extract on the subject of marriage, showing the rule of the church on this important matter. The extract is from the Book of Doctrine and Covenants, and is the only rule allowed by the church.

'All legal contracts of marriage made before a person is baptized into this church, should be held sacred and fulfilled. Inasmuch as this church of Christ has been reproached with the crime of fornication, and polygamy; we declare that we believe, that one man should have one wife; and one woman, but one husband, except in the case of death, when either is at liberty to marry again. It is not right to persuade a woman to be baptized contrary to the will of her husband neither is it lawful to influence her to leave her husband. ,,,!19

Robert D. Foster wrote a letter from New York City stating that he had attended a lecture by John C. Bennett, where Bennett talked about spiritual wifery, Nancy Rigdon, Mrs.

Pratt and others. Foster defended Joseph Smith and told the audience that Bennett was a liar. An extract of the letter was published in The Wasp.120

The Wasp published a letter from Sidney Rigdon concerning the letter of Nancy Rigdon that was published in the Sangamo Journal. In this letter he states, "I am fully authorized by my daughter, Nancy, to say...that she never said to Gen. Bennett or any other person that said letter was written by said Mr. Smith, nor in his handwriting...that she never at any time authorised [sicJ Gen. Bennett to use her name in the public paflers...l would further state that Mr. Smith denied to me the authorship of that letter. " 21


Sidney Rigdon, in a certificate dated September 3, 1842 stated that Stephen Markham

" not to be believed, that his word for truth and veracity is not good "122 Published in the same issue were certificates of Carlos Gove, George W. Robinson and Henry Marks stating that Nancy Rigdon was "a lady of a virtuous, chaste, and upright moral character. "123


Nauvoo High Council Minutes: "Sept 3rd I 842, Council met according to adjournment. A Charge was preferred against Gustavus Hills by Elijah Everett, one of the teachers of the Church, for illicit intercourse with a certain woman by the name of Mary Clift, by which she is with child, and for teaching the said Mary Clift that the heads of the Church practiced such conduct & that the time would come when men would have more wives than one &c. May Clift did not appear & upon vote it was adjourned until 4 o'clock

P.M tomorrow. Samuel Bent, David Fullmer, Elijah Everett & Gustavus Hills were to go to her house at 8 o'clock tomorrow morning & take Alderman Spencer, to take her depositions and so that the trial might take place according to adjournment tomorrow... nl 24

Nauvoo High Council Minutes: "Council met according to adjournment. Joshua Smith being absent, Elias Higbee was appointed in his place.. The case of Gustavus Hills was called President A. Cowles spoke by way of address to the Council upon the subject. The affidavit of Mary Clift, dated 29th Aug 1842, as also one of Sept 4th 1842, were read Esther Smith gave evidence that defendant told her it was lawfal for people to hold illicit intercourse, if they only held their peace& that the time would it was agreeable to the practice of some of the leading men or heads of the Church. It took place the Thursday before the Choir was dismissed, in the upper part of Town, near the Bluff, at 9 0 'clock in the evening-she was going home-he offered & went to accompany her and this took place upon the way-she further testified that May Clift joined the Choir at Br Joseph Smiths. Defendant then produced a paper containing questions put to & answers given by Mary Clift this morning, after her deposition was taken by alderman Spencer, which went together with aforesaid depositions, to prove his guilt-several w#h witnesses were afterwards called upon in his behalf but none gave any evidence that he was innocent.

The Council/ors then spoke according to order, who were four in all Viz (5) David Fullmer, (6) G. W. Harris, (7) Simeon Carter pro tern/or T. Grover, (8) and A Johnson. Br. Everett & Hills then spoke; After which Prest Cowles & Rich gave their judgment, in which the entire Council concurred by Vote-that is by disfellowshiping Gustavus

Hi/ls_ 125


1842 Sep 13

Fanny Brewer gave an affidavit which stated:

Testimony of Fanny Brewer, of Boston Boston, September 13, 1842

To the Public:-- I have long desired that some one who had a certain knowledge of the hidden practices and abominations at Nauvoo, would have the moral courage to come out, with a full development; and my desires have been realized in General Bennett's disclosures. As the ice is now broken, L too, have a tale to tell. In the spring of 1837, I left Boston/or Kirtland, in all good faith, to assemble with the Saints, as I thought, and worship God more perfectly. On my arrival, ]found brother going to law with brother, drunkenness prevailing to a great extent, and every species of wickedness...There was much excitement against the Prophet, on another account, likewise,-- an unlawful intercourse between himself and a young orphan girl residing in his family, and under his protection!!! Mr. Martin Harris told me that the Prophet was most notorious for lying and licentiousness!! In the/all of 1837, the Smith family all left Kirtland, by revelation, Ior necessi·ty, )fior 1uv·11ssourz·. ..126

1842 Oct 1____

The Times and Seasons, after publishing the statement on marriage from the Doctrine and Covenants, published the following statements:

"We the undersigned members of the church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints and residents of the city of Nauvoo, persons of families do hereby certify and declare that we know of no other rule or system of marriage than the one published from the Book of Doctrine and Covenants, and we give this certificate to show that Dr. J C. Bennett's "secret wife system" is a creature of his own make as we know of no such society in this place nor never did [Signed} S. Bennett, N K Whitney, George Miller, Albert Pettey, Alpheus Cutler, Elias Higbee, Reynolds Cahoon, John Taylor, Wilson Law, E. Robinson, W Woodruff, Aaron Johnson. "

"We the undersigned members of the ladies' relief society, and married females do certify and declare that we know of no system of marriage being practiced in the churchof Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints save the one contained in the Book of Doctrine and Covenants, and we give this certificate to the public to show that J C. Bennett's "secret wife system" is a disclosure of his own make. [Signed] Emma Smith, President, Elizabeth Ann Whitney, Counsellor, Sarah M Cleveland, Counsellor, Eliza R. Snow, Secretary, Mary C. Miller, Catharine Pettey, Lois Cutler, Sarah Higbee, Thirza Cahoon, Phebe Woodruff, Ann Hunter, Leonora Taylor, Jane Law, Sarah Hillman, Sophia R. Marks, Rosannah Marks, Polly Z Johnson, Angeline Robinson, Abigail Works. "127


1842 Nov

Sarah Peak Noon, plural wife of Heber C. Kimball gave birth to a boy named, Adelman. He died six months later.128


1842 Dec 1

Jonathan H. Holmes and Elvria A. Cowles were married at Nauvoo by Joseph Smith.129 Joseph Smith and Elvria Cowles were later sealed on June 1, 1843.130


1842 Dec 7


1843 Jan 18

The following article was published in the Times and Seasons: "NOTICE. There was a book printed at my office, a short time since, written by Udney H Jacobs, on marriage131, without my knowledge; and had I been apprised of it, I should not have printed it; not that I am opposed to any man enjoying his privileges; but I do not wish to have my name associated with the authors, in an unmeaning rigmarole of nonsence [sic], folly, and trash. JOSEPH SMITH132

Orson Hyde returned to Nauvoo from his mission to Palestine. Later he stated:

"During my absence to Palestine, the conduct of his [Sidney Rigdon 's] daughter, Nancy, became so notorious in this city, according to common rumor, she was regarded generally, little if any better than a public prostitute. Joseph Smith knowing the conduct she was guilty of, felt anxious to reprove and reclaim her if possible. He, accordingly, requested my wife [Marinda Nancy Johnson Hyde] to invite her down to her house. He wished to speak with her and show her the impropriety of being gallanted about by so many different men, many of whom were comparatively strangers to her... Miss Nancy, I presume, considered her dignity highly insulted at the plain and sharp reproofs she received from this servant of God. She ran home and told her father that Mr. Smith wanted her for a spiritual wife and that he employed my wife to assist him in obtaining her. Mr. Rigdon also thought this was a good time to crush a member of the Johnson family, against which he had an old grudge, because Father Johnson, after giving him and his family a living for a long time, building a house for them to live in &c., would not give him his farm and all his property"133

William Law stated: "In 1843 Hyrum Smith handed to me a writing to read and to be returned to him. I took it home and upon reading found that it purported to be a revelation to Joseph Smith, authorizing polygamy in the Church...Joseph told me that he had several wives sealed to him, and that they afforded him a great deal of pleasure ...Mrs. Smith complained to me about Joseph keeping young wives in her house and elsewhere, and his neglect of her ..."134


Sarah and Nancy Longstroth sealed to Willard Richards135

1843 Jan 20

1843 Feb


1843 Feb 5

1843 Feb 10


In a meeting of the Twelve Apostles, Brigham Young, "said all he had against Orson [Pratt] was when he came home he loved his wife better than David Joseph [Smith said} She lied about me-I never made the offer which she said I did.- I will not advise you to break up your family-unless it were asked of me. Then I would council you to get a bill from your wife & marry a virtuous woman -- & raise a new family - but if you do not do it shall never throw it in your teeth. Joseph[:} Orson I prophecy in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ. That it will not be 6 months. Before you learn things which will make you glad you have not left us... 4 - oclock orson Pratt, Sarah Marinda Pratt & Lydia Granger were Baptized in the River Pr. Pat Joseph Smith. -- & confirmed in the Court Room - Orson received the priesthood & the same power & authority as informer days."136


Joseph Smith explained to William Clayton concerning the doctrine of plural marriage. He stated that Joseph Smith "...informed me that he had other wives living besides his .first wife Emma, and in particular gave me to understand that Eliza R. Snow, Louisa Beman, Desdemona W Fullmer and others were his lawful wives in the sight of uueaven. .,/37




The Times and Seasons published a letter signed by J. C. S. which states the evil of John C. Bennett and then says"...I can safely say I never have seen anything derogatory to the Character or conduct of Mr. Smith, as a christian, or rophet; but he has every where proclaimed against wickedness and abominations ... " 39

Harriet Clark sealed to William D. Huntington140

In Nauvoo mayor's court, Oliver Olney is convicted of being a "thief." A bill of grand larceny and burglary was found against him. The report stated that he was also tried by the High Council and he was disfellowshiped.141 On April 1, 1843 he published a pamphlet titled The Absurdities of Mormonism Portrayed142 which had a chapter titled "Polygamy" and another one titled "Seduction of Females" and repeats some of John C. Bennett's charges.


From the History of the Church, "I [Joseph Smith] attended a special session of the city council, when an Ordinance was passed authorizing and regulating marriages in the city ofNauvoo."143


1843 Mar

Mary Ann Price sealed to Orson Hyde144 [Most sources date this sealing as July 20, 1843 145]

When Parley P. Pratt and his family were returning from his mission in England, his stepdaughter, Mary Ann Steams saw a little book concerning polygamy. She said: "It was while located on the boat at St. Louis that I saw the little book published by Martha Brotherton on polygamy. She with her family had visited at our house before they left England, and being acquainted with her made me very curious to know what she had to say about it, so I took the book, went into my berth, drew the curtains, and proceeded to investigate. I had always been taught to believe in the Bible, and when I came to the place where it quoted Abraham, Jacob and others as having more than one wife, I decided that the principle must be true, coming from that source-and also, though right for others, not for me was my firm conclusion. And thou h thus steeled against it for myself, I always honored and respected those living in it." 46

Erastus Snow stated: "... Being anxious to visit the Prophet and Saints at Nauvoo, I left the field of my labors in charge of local elders early in March, 1843 ...I had a very enjoyable visit for about a month with the Prophet and my kindred and brethren. It was during this visit that the Prophet told me what the Lord had revealed to him touching upon baptism for the dead and marriage for eternity, and requiring his chosen and proved servants to take unto themselves wives, and introduced several of those who had been sealed to himself and other of the first elders of the Church. Foremost among the former was my wife's sister Louisa, whose integrity, devotion, and purity of soul were known to aII h er acquam. t ances ... ,,147


1843 Mar4

1843 Mar 8

1843 Mar9

1843 Mar 15

1843 Mar 27

EMILY DOW PARTRIDGE sealed to JOSEPH SMITH148 She stated that Heber C. Kimball performed the marriage. She and her sister Eliza were sealed to Joseph Smith again on May 11, 1843 in the presence of Emma Smith by James Adams.149


ELIZA MARIA PARTRIDGE sealed to JOSEPH SMITH150 She and her sister Emily were sealed to Joseph Smith again on May 11, 1843 in the presence of Emma Smith by James Adams.151

Harriet P. Wheeler Decker sealed to Lorenzo Dow Young152

The Times and Seasons reprinted a letter from the Boston Bee signed by H.R. a Mormon convert, which stated: "...We are charged with advocating a plurality of wives, and common property. Now this is as false as the many other ridiculous charges which are brought against us. No sect have [sic} a greater reverence for the laws of matrimony, or the rights offrivate property, and we do what others do not, practice what we preach... ,,J5


Joseph Smith dictated a letter to Sidney Rigdon stating, "...I believe and am laboring under the fullest convictions that you are actually practicing deception and wickedness against me and the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints; and that you are in connection with John C. Bennett and George W Robinson in the whole of their abominable practices, in seeking to destroy me and this people; and that Jared Carter is as deep in the mud as you, sir, are in the mire... " Willard Richards took the letter to Rigdon and returned his answer to Joseph Smith. Rigdon denied any connection to Cook and he stated, "...I can assert in truth, that with myse(f and any other person on this globe there never was nor is there now existing anything privately or publicly in injure your character in any respect whatever; neither has any person spoken to me on any such subject. All that has ever been said by me has been said to your face, all of which you know as well as J..."154


1843 Apr

Joseph Smith taught Erastus Snow, "the doctrine of celestial marriage, including a plurality of wives, in Nauvoo, Ill., in April 1843. He also told me of those women he had taken to wives. My wife's sister, Louisa Beman, was his first plural wife..."155

Joseph Smith taught Lorenzo Snow concerning Plural Marriage,

"He [Joseph Smithj said that the Lord had revealed it unto him and commanded him to have women sealed to him as wives, that he foresaw the trouble that would follow and sought to turn away from the commandment, that an angel from heaven appeared before him with a drawn sword, threatening him with destruction unless he went forward and obeyed the commandment. He further said that my sister Eliza R. Snow had been sealed to him as his wife for time and eternity.156


1843 Apr I

1843 Apr 2

1843 Apr 5

1843 Apr 10

1843 Apr27


Adelmon, son of Sarah Peak Noon, plural wife of Heber C. Kimball died in Nauvoo.157

Oliver H. Olney, an early member of the Church and son-in-law of John and Elisa Johnson, published a pamphlet titled The Absurdities of Mormonism Portrayed158 which had a chapter titled "Polygamy" and another one titled "Seduction of Females" which repeats some of John C. Bennett's charges by Nancy Rigdon and Martha Brotherton.

Interestingly, he also talks about a Mrs. Hide's involvement and ifhe means Marinda Johnson Hyde, he is talking about his wife's sister.


The Nauvoo High Council considered the case of Jordan P. Hendrixson. Isaac Allred charged him with marrying " ...a second woman when his first wife was living, from which he was not released by the laws of God or of Man, consequently [he] committed adultery ..." President Marks decided that he should "continue in the Church," but the High Council disagreed and voted to cut him off from the Church.159

Joseph Smith taught Benjamin F. Johnson concerning plural marriage and asked to marry his sister Almera. "Subsequent to this I took her to the city of Nauvoo, where she was married, or sealed for time and eternity, to President Joseph Smith, by his brother Hyrum Smith, in the presence of myself and Louisa Beaman, who told me she had also been sealed or married to the Prophet Joseph. This was at the residence of my sister, the widow of Lyman R. Sherman, who also was a witness. "160

" ...His [Joseph's} brother Hyrum said to me: "Now, Br. Benjamin, you know that Br. Hyrum would not sanction this ifit was not from the Lord The Lord revealed this to Brother Joseph long ago, and he put it off until the Angel of the Lord came to him with a drawn sword and told him that he would be slain if he did not go forth and fulfill this law. " He told my sister to have no fears; and he there and then sealed my sister Almira to the Prophet. Soon after this he was at my house again, where he occupied my Sister Almira's room and bed, and also asked me for my youngest sister, Esther M I told him she was promised in marriage to my wife's brother. He said "Well, let them marry, for it will all come right. "161


Sarah B Alley sealed to Joseph B. Noble162


Henry Jacobs is called on a mission to western New York with John S. Gleason.163 His wife Zina Huntington was sealed to Joseph Smith October 27, 1841.164

Margaret Moon sealed to William Clayton-Clayton wrote: "On the 2th of April, /843, the Prophet Joseph Smith married to me Margaret Moon, for time and eternity, at the residence of Elder Heber C. Kimball... "165

1843 Apr 29

1843 May

Joseph C. Kingsbury and Sarah Ann Whitney are married by Joseph Smith.166 Sarah had been sealed to Joseph Smith July 27, 1842.


MARINDA NANCY JOHNSON sealed to JOSEPH SMITH167 Her affidavit dated May I, 1869 states that she was sealed to Joseph Smith in May 1843, butJoseph Smith's 1843 journal says, "Apr[il] [18)42 Marinda Johnson to Joseph Smith..." Since this entry is in the handwriting of Thomas Bullock, it may have been written after Joseph Smith's death.168

Erastus Snow dictated to his son Franklin R., the following:

"I had a very enjoyable visit [in Nauvoo] for about a month with    the Prophet and my kindred and brethren. It was during this visit    that the Prophet told me what the Lord had revealed to him    teaching baptism for the dead and marriage for eternity, and

requiring his chosen and proved servants to take unto themselves    wives and introduce the Patriarchal order of marriage. He    introduced several of those who had been sealed to himself and    others of the first elders of the Church. Foremost among the former was my wife's sister Louisa, whose integrity, devotion and    purity of soul was known to all her acquam.t ances. ,,/69


1843 May 1

LUCY WALKER sealed to JOSEPH SMITH-William Clayton wrote: "On the 1'1 day of May, 1843, I officiated in the office of an Elder by marrying Lucy Walker to the Prophet Joseph Smith, at his own residence. 170

William Clayton's diary states: "May I'' (1843) A.M at the Temple at IO. Married Joseph to Lucy Walker, P.M at Prest. Joseph's, he is gone out with Woodworth, he borrowed L20 of William Allen, I took supper with him. Prest. Paid L 20 to Woodworth for Nauvoo House171


Lucy Walker Kimball wrote: "When the Prophet Joseph Smith first mentioned the principle of plural marriage to me I became very indignant, and told him emphatically that I did not wish him ever to mention it to me again, as my feelings and education revolted against any thing of such nature. He counseled me, however, to pray to the Lord for light and understanding in relation thereto, ...I received a powerful and irresistible testimony of the truth of plural marriage...Shortly afterwards I consented to become the Prophet's wife, and was married to him May 1, 1843, Elder William Clayton officiating.

I am also able to testify that Emma Smith, the Prophet's first wife, gave her consent to the marriage of at least four other girls to her husband, and that she was well aware that he associated with them as wives within the meaning of all that word implies. This is proven by the fact that she herself, on several occasions kept guard at the door to prevent disinterested persons from intruding, when these ladies were in the house." 172


Lucy W. Kimball testified in the Temple Lot Case that "...The doctrine of polygamy was taught to me personally in Nauvoo, and I was married to the Prophet Joseph Smith.

William Clayton performed the ceremony [sic], and I accepted it as a special commandment from God. The marriage was performed on the !st day of May, 1843. The only witness to the ceremony was Eliza Partridge. "173

1843 May 11



1843 May 16-18

1843 May 28

1843 Spr/Sum

1843 Jun I

1843 June 12

1843 Jun 23

EMILY AND ELIZA PARTRIDGE sealed again to JOSEPH SMITH, this time they were married with the consent of Emma Hale Smith, by James Adams.174 Eliza Partridge Lyman's affidavit says that she was married to Joseph Smith by James Adams in the presence of Emma (Hale) Smith and Emily D. Partridge.175 Emily Dow Young's affidavit states that same.176

George A. Smith wrote that Emma, about this time, gave her husband two other wives­ Maria and Sarah Lawrence.177

Times and Seasons published the following article:

"TO THE PUBLIC, I am informed that Henry Jackson is palming himself on some of the branches of the church, in Iowa, and soliciting donations as an elder of said church, whereas he has been excluded from the church and is not a member, JOHN SMITH, elder"178 (Joseph H. Jackson publish later, A Narrative of the Adventures and Experience of Joseph H Jackson in Nauvoo, Disclosing the Depths of Mormon Villainy, August 1844 which contains an account of plural marriages.]179

Joseph Smith visited the Johnson Family in Macedonia, Illinois and "occupied the same bed" with Almera Johnson, his plural wife and sister of Benjamin F. Johnson.180

Joseph and Emma Hale Smith and James and Harriet Adams were sealed for time and eternity at Joseph Smith's Homestead in Nauvoo.181

John Benbow "said that in the spring or forepart of the summer of 1843, at his house, four miles from Nauvoo, County of Hancock, State of Illinois, President Joseph Smith taught him and his wife, Jane Benbow, the doctrine of celestial marriage, or plurality of wives, Hyrum Smith being present. And further, that Hannah Ells Smith, boarded at his house two months during that summer of the same year; and the said Hannah E. Smith also lived at his house several months in I 844, after the Prophet's death. And farther, that President Smith frequently visited his wife Hannah at his (JB.'s) house."182

ELVRIA A. COWLES sealed to JOSEPH SMITH by Heber C. Kimball with Vilate Kimball and Eliza Partridge present.183

Susannah Lee Liptrot sealed to Willard Richards184 RHODA RICHARDS sealed to JOSEPH SMITH185

In Joseph Smith's journal kept by Willard Richards, it states in shorthand "married to Rhoda Richards and Willard Richards married to Susan Liptrot"186 Rhoda Richards stated: "I have passed companionless through life; but am sure of having my proper place and standing in the resurrection, having been sealed to the prophet Joseph, according to the celestial law, by his own request, under the inspiration of divine revelation."187

William Clayton wrote:

"This A.M President Joseph took me and conversed considerable concerning some delicate matters. Said [Emma} wanted to lay a snare for me. He told me last night of this and said he had felt troubled. He said [Emma] had treated him coldly and badly since I came ...and he knew she was disposed to be revenged on him for some things. She thought that if he would indulge himself she would too. He cautioned me very kindly for which !felt thankful ... "188

1843 July

1843 July 11

I 843 July 12

1843 July 13

1843 July 20

1843 July 22

1843 July 24

1843 July 28

1843 Aug


Roxena Higby Repsher sealed to James Adams190

Joseph Smith dictated the revelation on plural marriage to William Clayton. Clayton stated: "Joseph and Hyrum than sat down and Joseph commenced to dictate the revelation on celestial marriage, and I wrote it, sentence by sentence, as he dictated. After the whole as written, Joseph asked me to read it through, slowly and carefully, which I did, and he pronounced it correct." 191

Joseph C. Kingsbury copied the revelation. Kingsbury stated: ".../ will say that Bishop Newel K. Whitney handed me the revelation above referred to on either the day it was written or the day following, and stating that it was [sic} asked me to take a copy ofit. I did so, and then read my copy of it to Bishop Whitney, who compared it with the original which he held in his hand while I read to him. When I had finished reading, Bishop Whitney pronounced the copy correct, and Hyrum Smith coming into the room at the time to fetch the original, Bishop Whitney handed it to him... " 192 [The original manuscript in William Clayton's handwriting was burned by Emma Smith a few days later.193]

Joseph Smith sealed Orson Hyde to Mary Ann Price.194

Joseph Smith sealed William Clayton and his first wife, Ruth Moon Clayton. William Clayton wrote: "...and on the 22nd of July, 1843, he [Joseph Smithj married to me, according to the order of the Church, my first wife Ruth." [Clayton's first plural wife, Margaret Moon, Ruth's sister, was sealed to him by Joseph Smith on April 27, 1843.]195

Hyrum Smith visited Howard and Martha Jane Coray and "observed to us that his brother, Joseph Smith, the Prophet, had received a revelation on marriage, that was not for the public yet, which he would rehearse to us, as he had taken pains to commit it to memory... After which he reviewed that part pertaining to plurality of wives, dwelling at some length upon the same in order that we might clearly understand the principle. And on the same day (July 22nd, 1843) he sealed my wife,formerly Martha Jane Knowlton, to me... ,,/96

Elizabeth Brotherton sealed to Parley P. Pratt197 Mary Ann Frost sealed to Parley P. Pratt198 Charlotte Walters sealed to William Felshaw199 Catherine Phillips sealed to Hyrum Smith200

1843 Aug 11

1843 Aug 12

Caroline Whiting sealed to Thomas Grover2°1 Caroline E. Hubbard sealed to Thomas Grover2°2 Mercy Fielding Thompson sealed to Hyrum Smith203

Mercy R. Thompson, writing to Joseph Smith III, September 5, 1883, said, "My beloved husband, R. B. Thompson, your father's private secretary to the end of his mortal life, died August 27'h, 1841, (I presume you will remember him.) Nearly two years after his death your father told me that my husband had appeared to him several times, telling him that he did not wish me to live such a lonely life, and wished him to request your uncle Hyrum to have me sealed to him for time. Hyrum communicated this to his wife (my sister) who, by request, opened the subject to me, when everything with in me rose to opposition to such a step, but when your father called and explained the subject to me, I dared not refuse to obey the counsel, lest peradventure I should be found fighting against God; and especially when he told me the last time my husband appeared to him he came with such power that it made him tremble...The time was appointed, with the consent of all parties, and you father sealed me to your uncle Hyrum for time, in my sister's room, with a covenant to deliver me up in the morning of the resurrection to Robert Blaske/ Thompson, with whatever offepring should be the result of that union, at the same time counseling you uncle to build a room for me and move me over as soon as convenient, which he did, and I remained there as a wife the same as my sister to the day of his death.204

William Clayton wrote:"...Joseph told me to day that [William?] "Walker" had been speaking to him concerning my having taken M[argaretj away from A[aronj and intimated that I had done wrong. I told him to be quiet and say no more about it. He also told me Emma was considerably displeased with it but says he she will soon get over it. In the agony of mind which I have endured on this subject 1 said I was sorry I had done it, at which Joseph told me not to say so. !finally asked him if I had done wrong in what I had done. He answered no you have a right to get all you can..."205

Hyrum Smith read the revelation to the Nauvoo High Council. 206

Thomas Grover stated that: "The Presidency of the Stake, Wm. Marks, Father Cowles and the late Apostle Charles C. Rich were present. The following are the names of the High Council that were present, in their order, viz: Samuel Benter, William Huntington, Alpheus Cutler, Thos. Grover, Lewis D. Wilson, David Fullmer, Aaron Johnson, Newell Knight, Leonard Soby, James Allred, Henry G. Sherwood, and I think, Samuel H. Smith. Brother Hyrum was called upon to read the revelation. He did so, and after the meeting said, "Now, you that believe this revelation and go forth and obey the same shall be saved, and you that reject it shall be damned. We saw this prediction verified in less than one week. Of the Presidency of the Stake, Wm. Marks and Father Cowles rejected the revelation; of the Council that were [sic] present Leonard Soby rejected it. From that time forward there was a very strong division in the High Council...From that time forward we often received instructions.from the Prophet as to what was the will of the Lord and how to proceed .."207

David Fullmer stated: "...Dunbar Wilson made enquiry in relation to the subject of a plurality of wives, as there were rumors about respecting it [sic], and he was satisfied there was something in those remarks, and he wanted to know what it was, upon which Hyrum Smith stepped across the road to his residence, and soon returned bringing with him a copy of the revelation on celestial marriage, given to Joseph Smith, July 12, A.D. 1843, and read the same to the High Council, and bore testimony to its truth. The said David Fullmer farther saith that, to the best of his memory and belief, the following named persons were present: Wm. Marks, Austin A. Cowles, Samuel Bent, Geo. W Harris, Dunbar Wilson, W Huntington, Levi Jackman, Aaron Johnson, Thos. Grover, David Fullmer, Phinehas Richards, James Allred and Leonard Soby. And the said David Fullmer farther saith that Wm. Marks, Austin A. Cowles and Leonard Soby were the only persons present who did not receive the testimony of Hyrum Smith..."208

1843 Aug 13

1843 Aug 16

1843 Aug 25

1843 Fall

1843 Sep 8

1843 Sep 15

In a letter dated, February 26, 1886, from Beverly, New Jersey, Leonard Soby wrote to James S. Brooks of San Bernardino, California that he "was present at the High Council in Nauvoo when that revelation [on plural marriage] was read, and knew it to be true, and I hope that Lord will bless you to see the truth as I do."209

Mary Akins Smith sealed to John Smith210

Emma and Joseph Smith had conflict over Plural Marriage.211

William Clayton wrote: " ...This A.M Joseph told me that since E[mma] came back from St. Louis she had resisted the P[riesthood], in toto and he had to tell her he would relinquish al/for her sake. She said she would [have] given him E[lize] and E[mily] P[artridge], but he knew ifhe took them she would pitch on him and obtain a divorce and leave him. He however told me he should not relinquish anything. 0 God deliver they servant from iniquity and bondage ..."212

The History of the Church records, "Friday, 25-My brother Hyrum in the office, conversing with me about the new revelation upon celestial marriage ."213

Joseph Smith taught George A. Smith concerning Plural Marriage214 He wrote to Joseph Smith III: "When I returned to Nauvoo from my mission in the fall of 1843, I met Hyrum at the landing, he accompanied me on the way to my home when he recited the most of the Revelation on patriarchal marriage and invited me to his house to receive further instruction. Next day, I called on your father who expressed his gratitude at the conversion of bro. Hyrum and gave me additional views on the subject and spoke of the results of the same in the eternal worlds ..."215

Mary Ann Sheffield was married to William Smith by Brigham Young at the home of Agnes Smith, but Agnes Smith was not present.216 Mary Ann stated "...! never was introduced to Joseph Smith by William Smith as his wife...I never talked with Joseph about polygamy but once... "217

Mary Ann Washburn sealed to Joseph B. Noble218 William Clayton wrote:

" ...President Joseph told me he had lately had a new item of law revealed to him in relation to myself He said the Lord had revealed to him that a man could only take 2 of a family except by express revelation and as I had said I intended to take Lydia he made this known for my benefit. To have more than two in a family was apt to cause wrangles

and trouble. He finally asked if I would give L[ydiaJ to him. I said I would so far as I

had anything to do in it. He requested me to talk to her... "219

1843 Sep 17

1843 Sep 20

1843 Oct

1843 Oct 6

1843 Oct 19

1843 Oct 19-21

William Clayton wrote:

"At home all day with M[argaret] I had some talk with Lydia. She seems to receive it kindly but says she has promised her mother not to marry while her mother lives and she thm. ks she won 't"220

MELISSA LOTT sealed to JOSEPH SMITH221 In her testimony in the Temple Lot Case, the transcription states that the marriage date was September 27.222

Hyrwn Smith read the revelation on Plural Marriage to Samuel A. Woolley, his brother, Edwin D. Woolley and Edwin's wife, Mary as well as several other people including a "Mrs. German" in the Woolley home in Nauvoo.223

At a special conference, Joseph Smith expressed complaints against Sidney Rigdon, including that Rigdon had "...a supposed correspondence and connection with John C. Bennett ..." Rigdon explained that "he had never received but one communication from John C. Bennett, and that of a business character, except one addressed to him conjointly with Elder Orson Pratt, which he handed over to President Smith-that he had never

written any letters to John C. Bennett.."224

William Clayton wrote:

" ...After we had got on the road he [Joseph Smithj began to tell me that E[mmaj was turned quite friendly and kind. She had been anointed and he also had been a [nointed] K[ing}. He said that it was her advice that I should keep M[argaret] at home and it was also his council. Says he just keep her at home and brook [sicJ it and if they raise trouble about it and bring you before me I will give you an awful scourging and probably cut you off from the church and then I will baptise[sic] you and set you ahead as good as ever.225

Joseph Smith visited the Johnson family in Macedonia. He sealed Benjamin F. Johnson to his first wife [Melissa Bloomfield Le Baron.] He also visited Benjamin's mother [Julia Hills Johnson] at her residence in Macedonia and "taught her in my hearing the doctrine of celestial marriage, declaring that an angel appeared unto him with a drawn sword, threatening to slay him if he did not proceed to fulfill the law that had been given to him. And counseled my mother to be sealed to his uncle, Father John Smith (father of Geo. A. Smith), to which she consented, and to my certain knowledge was subsequently sealed to him by the Prophet." As remembered by Benjamin F. Johnson.226

An entry in Joseph Smith's 1843 diary, in the handwriting of Thomas Bullock, states: "Oct[oberJ 20 [th] B. F. Johnson and wife Melissa LaBarron by Hy[rum] Smith."227 Benjamin F. Johnson remembered that Joseph Smith sealed them.22

1843 Nov 2


1843 Nov 19

1843 Nov 21

1843 Nov 25

1843 Dec

1843 Dec12

FANNY YOUNG MURRAY sealed to JOSEPH SMITH by her brother, Brifam Young in the presence of Mary Ann Young, Harriet E. Cook and Augusta Adams.22

Augusta Adams sealed to Brigham Youn by Joseph Smith in the presence of Mary Ann Young, Fanny Murray and Harriet Cook. 30

Harriet E. Cook sealed to Brigham Young bi Joseph Smith in the presence of Mary Ann Young, Fanny Murray and Augusta Adams. 31

An entry in Joseph Smith's 1843 journal, in the handwriting of Thomas Bullock, states, "Nov[ember] ll[th] W. Woodruff and Ph[o]ebe W. Carter"232

Wilford Woodruffs journal states: "Nov llthe 1843. During the evening 1 walked over to Br. Taylors & spent some time in conversing about the principles of the Celestial world or some of them. Br Hiram Smith was in with us & presented som ideas for much interest to me concerning Baptism for the dead, the resurrection redemption & exhaltation in the New & everlasting covenant that reacheth into the eternal world He sealed the marrige Covenant between me & my wife Phebe W Carter for time & eternity & gave us the principle of it which was interestinf to us. After spending the evening plesantly we returned home & spent the night."23

Ezra T. Benson is sealed to his first wife, Pamelia Andrus Benson234

An entry in Joseph Smith's 1843 diary, in the handwriting of Thomas Bullock, says, "21 [st] Edward Lawrence and Marg[are]t Butterfield by W Clayton."235 Clayton went to Joseph and asked him to do the sealing. "He could not come but sent Hyrum ... I stood as proxy for Edwd Lawrence."236

William Henry Harrison Sagers was called before the Nauvoo High Council and tried for having Spiritual wives.237

Wilford Woodruff recorded in his journal, "I was called in the evening to a council with the Twelve. When 1arived at Joseph Smith's Store I found the High Council sitting on a case of Harrison Sagers for some improper Conduct or offer towards some female. At the close President Joseph Smith made an address upon the subject which was highly interesting & its tendency was to do away with evry evil & practice vitue & Holiness before the Lord. That the Church had not received any license from him to commit adultery fornication or any such thing but to the contrary if any man Commit adultery He Could not receive the Ceslestial kingdom of God. Even ifhe was saved in any kingdom it could not be the Celestial kingdom. He said he thought the many examples that had been manifest John C. Bennet & others was sufficient to show the fallacy of such a course of conduct. He condemned the principle in toto & warned those present against going into those evils, for they would shurely bring a Curse upon their heads."238

Amos Fielding was told that Joseph Smith had received a revelation on "celestial marriage."239

Elizabeth Kaighan sealed to John Taylor240

1843 Dec 23

1843 Dec 28


1844 Jan 14

1844 Feb 1

1844 Feb 18

1844 Feb 25

1844 Feb 26

Bathsheba W. Smith was asked in her testimony in the Temple Lot Case in 1892, if there was "any conversation had among the members of the church there at Nauvoo, Illinois, when you lived there, in regard to that principle-plural marriage." She answered "I heard it discussed a good many times by different ones and I remember Sister Emma speaking about it at one time about as plain as any body." She was asked when and where was that? She answered "It was in her room, and I was receiving my anointing for endowments and she said if we permitted it our husbands would be taking more wives than one, and if we did not like [it] we should be taking a determined stand against it, or something like that,-that we should be resolute about it or something of that kind."241 The Wilford Woodruffs diary records Bathsheba W. Smith got her anointings December 23, 1843.242

Ellen Wilding sealed to Edwin D. Woolley243 Catherine Clawson sealed to Howard Egan244 Hannah B. Finch Merriam sealed to Isaac Morley245

The following was published in the Times and Seasons:


As we have lately been credibly informed, that an Elder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, by the name of Hiram Brown, has been preaching Polygamy, and other false and corrupt doctrines, in the county of Lapeer, state of Michigan. This is to notify him and the Church in general, that he has been cut off from the church, for his iniquity; and he is further notified to appear at the Special Conference, on the 61h of April next, to make answer to these charges.

Joseph Smith Hyrum Smith

Presidents of said Church246

Margaret Moon, the plural wife of William Clayton gave birth to a boy named Daniel. He died six months later on August 27.247

Jane Ballantyne sealed to John Taylor248

The Nauvoo mayor's court, with Joseph Smith as judge, held a trial-City of Nauvoo versus Orsimus F Botswick [sic}, on complaint of Hyrum Smith for slanderous language concerning him and certain females of Nauvoo. Bostwick was fined $50 and costs.

Francis M Higbee, his attorney, gave notice he should appeal to the municipal court, and then to the circuit court. I [Joseph Smith] told Higbee what I thought of him for

tryin? to carry such a suit to Carthage-it was to stir up the mob and bring them upon us.24

1844 Mar    Minerva White sealed to Erastus Snow by Hyrum Smith250

Erastus Snow wrote, "The Prophet Joseph Also gave me the privilege of taking another wife, which I did in March, I 844, the Patriarch Hyrum Smith officiating under the Prophet's direction."251

1844 Mar 6

1844 Mar 9

1844 Mar 15

1844 Mar 16

1844 Mar 20

1844 Mar 23

Eliza Clift sealed to Theodore Turley252

Members of the Female Relief Society ofNauvoo met in the first of two meetings to express their feelings towards charges made by Orsemus F. Bostwick [sic] concerning the virtue of the women ofNauvoo.253 They sanctioned the resolutions entitled, "Voice of Innocence from Nauvoo."254

"On or about the 9th of March... " while Amos Fielding was in conversation with Joseph Smith at the Mansion House, a youn lady came through the room and Joseph Smith remarked, "that is one of my wives." 55

The following was published in the Times and Seasons:

Nauvoo, March 15, 1844

To the brethren of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latterday [sicJ Saints, living on China Creek, in Hancock County, Greeting:--Whereas brother Richard Hewitt has called on me to-day, to know my views concerning some doctrines that are preached in your place, and states to me that some of your elders say, that a man having a certain priesthood, may have as many wives as he pleases, and that doctrine is taught here: I say unto you that that man teaches false doctrine, for there is no such doctrine taught here; neither is there any such thing practiced here. And any man that is found teaching privately or publicly any such doctrine, is culpable, and will stand a chance to be brought before the High Council, and lose his license and membership also: therefore he had better beware what he is about... Neither has any elder any authority to preach any mysterious thing to any branch of the church unless he has a direct commandment from God to do so. Let the matter of the grand councils of heaven, and the making of gods, worlds, and devils entirely alone.-for you are not called to teach any such doctrine-for neither you nor the people are capacitated to understand any such principles-less so to teach them. Your obedient servant, Hyrum Smith256

Members of the Female Relief Society of Nauvoo met in a second meeting to express their feelings towards charf es made by Orsemus F. Bostwick [sic] concerning the virtue of the women ofNauvoo.2 7 They sanctioned the resolutions entitled "Voice of Innocence from Nauvoo."258

The Nauvoo Neighbor published the resolutions entitled, "Voice of Innocence from Nauvoo," adopted at the Female Relief Society of Nauvoo meetings, which include the following: "...wherefore, while the marriage bed, undefiled is honorable, let polygamy, bigamy.fornication[,} adultery, and prostitution, be frowned out of the hearts of honest men to drop in the gulf of fallen nature, where the worm dieth not and the fire is not quenched!' and let all the saints say, Amen!

Emma Smith, Prest.

H M Ells, Sec. pro tem."259

Joseph Smith visited Dr. Robert D. Foster with William Clayton and Alexander Neibaur. Foster was gone and Mrs. Foster was at Mr. Gilman's house. They visited her. William Clayton recorded in his journal:

"...President Joseph asked Sister Foster if she ever in her life knew him guilty of an immoral or indecent act. She answered, 'No. ' He then explained his reasons for asking; which were, he had been informed that Dr. Foster had stated that Joseph made propositions to his wife calculated to lead her astray from the path of virtue; and then asked if ever he had used any indecent or insulting language to her. She answered, 'Never. ' He further asked if he ever preached anything like the 'plurality of wife' doctrine to her other than what he had preached in public? She said, 'No.' He asked her ifhe ever proposed to have illicit intercourse with her, and especially when he took dinner during the doctor's absence. She said, 'No. 'After some further conversation on the subject, we left. Mrs. Gillman was present all the time..."26

1844 Mar 27

1844 Apr 2

1844 Apr 8

1844 Apr 13

1844 Apr 15

M. G. Eaton signed an affidavit before Daniel H. Wells, an acting Justice of the Peace in Nauvoo, which stated that Eaton had attended a meeting in which Chauncey L. Higbee "...commenced talking about the spiritual wife system. He said he had no doubt but some of the Elders had ten or twelve a piece. He said they married them, whether the females were living or not; and they did it by recording the marriage in a large book, which book was sealed up after the record was made, and was not to be opened for a long time,-­ probably not till many of the husbands of those who were thus married were dead They would then open the book and break the seals in the presence of those females, and when they saw their names recorded in that book they would believe that the doctrine was true and they must submit. He said this book was kept at Mr. Hyrum Smith's... " Eaton also stated that at the same meeting, Dr. Foster told the story of someone [Joseph Smith?] trying to seduce Foster's wife. 261

Erastus Snow married to Minerva White as a plural wife, Joseph Smith performing the ceremony.262    .

Artimesia Beaman Snow, Erastus's first wife wrote: " ...In 1844 my husband first asked my consent to take himself other wives. I freely gave it, believing such an order of marriage to be a pure and holy principle ..."263

Hyrum Smith said in General Conference: " ...I speak to the Elders is in consequence of the 10000 reports from abroad-almost every man runs to him to inquire if things are true how many sp [spiritual] wives a man may have. I know nothing abt what he[?J call sp wife. I should not know any thing abt it. In abt ½ an hour after the man was gone and [?J began. The Elders tell such things all over the country. I am authorized to tell you from henceforth that any man who comes in & tell any such dam fool doctrine to come in to take away his license - none but a fool teaches such stuff...I wish the El[dersJ of Israel to understand it is lawful/or a man to marry a wife but it is unlawful to have more & God has not [commanded?Jany one to have more..."264

William Clayton wrote in his journal, " ... P.M> President Hyrum talked on spiritual wives and after Joseph discoursed on the dead..."265

William Henry Harrison Sagers is charged with having spiritual wives and not providing for his family by his wife, Lucinda Sagers before the Nauvoo High CounciI.266

Henry Jacobs is called on a mission to Tennessee by the Twelve Apostles.267 His wife Zina was sealed to Joseph Smith on October 27, 1841268

1844 Apr 18

1844 Apr 26

1844 Apr 27

1844 May

1844 May4

1844 May 8

1844 May 9

1844 May 13

Wilson Law, William Law, Jane (Mrs. William) Law, Robert D. Foster and a Brother Smith were cut off the Church by the Nauvoo High Council with Brigham Young presiding. They were not at the Court.269 William Clayton wrote: " ...I also attended in council with the Twelve and High Council on cases of the Laws and R. D. Foster, when W Law and his wife Jane Law, Wilson Law and R. D. Foster were cut off from the church by unanimous vote ..."27    Former Governor Thomas Ford wrote: " ...Joe Smith began to play the tyrant over several of his followers. The first act of this sort which excited attention was an attempt to take the wife of William Law, one of his most talented and principal disciples, and make her a spiritual wife ..."271

Article in the Times and Seasons, states: "Nauvoo, April I 8, I 844, Robert D. Foster, Wilson law, William Law, and Jane Law, of Nauvoo; and Howard Smith of Scott county, Illinois, for unchristian like conduct, were cut off from the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, the authorities of said church, and ordered to be published in the Times and Seasons. W Richard, Church Recorder."272

Sarah Clift sealed to Theodore Turley273 Adeline Andrus sealed to Ezra T. Benson274

Hyrum Smith taught Charles C. Rich the principles of plural marriage275

William Law made an affidavit which stated that Hyrum Smith, in his office, let him read the revelation on plural marriage and that he took it to his home and read it to his wife.276

Jane Law made an affidavit that she read the revelation and that "it sustained in strong terms the doctrine of more wives than one at a time, in this world, and in the next, it authorized some to have the number often, and set forth that those women who would not allow their husbands to have more wives than one should be under condemnation before

God. ,,277

Austin Cowles made an affidavit that Hyrum Smith had read the revelation on plural marriage to the High Council in Nauvoo and that Cowles left his position in the Church because ofit.278 Cowles was a member of the Nauvoo High Council.

Clarissa Decker sealed to Brigham Young by Willard Richards in the ffesence of Lorenzo D. Young, Harriet P. Young and Lucy Ann Decker Young.27

George A. Smith wrote to Joseph Smith III that: " ...My last conversation with him on this subject occurred just previous to my departure from Nauvoo, May 9, 1844 in company with Elder W Woodruff to attend conferences in Michigan ...Jn his last conversation he administered a little chastisement to me for not stepping forward as he had indicated in patriarchal marriage. He assured me that the man who had many virtuous wives had many great prizes... "280

William Law wrote in his diary and then crossed it out: "he-[Joseph Smith] had lately eHdeavoFed to seduee my ·Nife, and had fuuHd heF a virtueus woman."281

1844 May 23

1844 May 25

1844 May 26

1844 May 29

William Clayton wrote: " ...A.M rode with President Joseph and brother Neibaur to Doctor [Robert] Fosters. He was gone to appanose [Appanoose County, Iowa} and his wife was at Mr. Gilmans. We went down there and saw her. President Joseph asked Sister Foster if she ever in her life knew him guilty of an immoral or indecent act. She answered no. He then explained his reasons for asking and then asked if ever he had used any indecent or insulting language to her, she answered, never. He further asked if he ever pre9ched any thing like spiritual wife doctrine to her only what he had preached in public. She said no! He asked her if he ever proposed to have illicit intercourse with her and especially when he took dinner during the Doctors absence. She said no. After some further conversation on the subject we left. Mrs. Gilman was present all the ...,,282

A grand jury indicted Joseph Smith for adultery with Maria Lawrence "and other diverse women," based on William Law's testimony. Joseph considered suing him for perjury and slander on behalf of Maria Lawrence.283

Joseph Smith preached at the stand in Nauvoo and Thomas Bullock took notes of the address. Bullock recorded that he said, "...Another indictment has been got up against me. It appears a holy prophet has arisen up, and he has testified against me: the reason is, he is so holy...! had not been married scarcely five minutes, and made one proclamation of the Gospel, before it was reported that I had seven wives. I mean to live and proclaim the truth as long as I can. This new holy prophet (William Law) has gone to Carthage and swore that I had told that I was guilty of adultery. This spiritual wifeism! Why, a man dares not speak or wink, for fear of being accused of this. William Law testified before forty policemen, and the assembly room full of witnesses, that he testified under oath that he never had heard or seen or knew anything immoral or criminal against me...He swore under oath that he was satisfied that he was ready to lay down his life for me, and [then] he swears that I have committed adultery. I wish the grand jury would tell me who they are-whether it will be a curse or blessing to me. I am quite tired of the fools asking me. A man asked me whether the commandment was given that a man may have seven wives; and now the new prophet has charged me with adultery. I never had any fuss with these men until that Female Relief Society brought out the paper against adulterers and adulteresses...and they rush away and leave the Church, and conspire to take away my life; and because I will not countenance such wickedness, they proclaim that I have been a true prophet, but that I am now a fallen prophet...Wilson Law also swears that I told him I was guilty of adultery. Brother Jonathan Dunham can swear to the contrary...I am innocent of all these charges, and you can bear witness of my innocent of all these charges, and you can bear witness of my innocence, for you know me yourselves...What a thing it is for a man to be accused of committing adultery, and having seven wives, when I can onlyfind one.284

The testimonies before the Nauvoo High Council on May 24, 1842 by Margaret J, Nyman, Matilda Nyman, Sarah Miller, and Catharine Warren were published in The Nauvoo Neighbor. Margaret J. Nyman said that Chauncey L Higbee had told her Joseph Smith said: "That any respectable female might indulge in sexual intercourse, and there was no sin in it providing the person so indulging keep the same to herself; for there could be no sin, where there was no accuser...[Sarah Miller said] I told him it might be told in bringing forth. Chauncey said there was no danger, and that Dr. Bennet understood it, and would come and take it away, if there was any thing... [Matilda J. Nyman stated] "!further testify that I never had any personal acquaintance with Joseph Smith and never heard him teach such doctrines as Higbee, stated either directly or indirectly. "285


1844 Jun 7

Francis M. Higbee made an affidavit concerning the political conditions in Nauvoo.286 The only issue of the Nauvoo Expositor is published with Sylvester Emmons as editor. It

published the affidavits of William Law, Jane Law, Austin Cowles, and Francis M. ee concernm. g poI ygamy. 2s1

A notice in the Nauvoo Expositor signed by Lucinda Sagers states: One Cent Reward[} Whereas my husband, the Rt. Rev. W H Harrison Sagers, Esq., has left my bed and board without cause or provocation, this is to notify the public not to harbor or trust him on my account, as I will pay no debts of his contacting. More anon. LUCINDA SAGERS, June 7, I 844288

1844 Jun 8

At a meeting of the Nauvoo City Council, according to the minutes, Hyrum Smith "... Referred to the revelation read to the High Council of the Church, which has caused so much talk, about the multiplicity of wives; that said revelation was in answer to a question concerning things which transpired informer days...289 ... Mayor referred to a writing from Dr. Goforth, showing the Laws presented the communication from the 'Female Relief Society' in the Nauvoo Neighbor to Dr. Goforth as the bone of content.zon... ,,290

1844Jun 10

1844Jun 11

1844 Jun 12

Joseph Smith was in meeting with the Nauvoo City Council "investigating the merits of the Nauvoo Expositor, also the conduct of the Laws, Higbees, Fosters, and others, who have formed a conspiracy for the purpose of destroying my life, and scattering the Saints or driving them from the State. An ordinance was passed concerning libels. The Council passed an ordinance declaring the Nauvoo Expositor a nuisance, and also issued an order to me to abate the said nuisance. I immediately ordered the Marshal to destroy it without delay... About 8 p.m., the Marshal returned and reported that he had removed the press, type, printing-paper, and.fixtures into the street, and destroyed them...291

William Clayton wrote: " ... The City Council passed a resolution declaring the Printing press on the hill a 'nuisance' and ordered it destroyed if not moved in 3 hours notice.

About sundown the police gathered at the Temple and after organizing proceeded to the office and demolished the press and scattered the Type ..."292

Joseph Smith, mayor of Nauvoo issued a "Proclamation" concerning the Nauvoo Expositor saying that it was used ".. for the purpose of raising suspicion, wrath, and indignation among a certain class of the less honorablejortion of mankind, to commit acts of violence upon the innocent and unsuspecting... " 93

William Clayton wrote: "... David Bettisworth a constable from Carthage came with a writ for Joseph, Hyrum, Phelps, Jno Taylor, L. Bennett and a number of others for riot, in breaking the press of the Nauvoo Expositor ...While this was going on and the Marshall summoning the Municipal Court Hyrum related the whole history of the difficulty with Wm. Law to the constable and a man with him, showing them what we believed on sealing of the covenant, that Law wanted to be sealed and Joseph told him he was forbid which begun the hard feelings. He talked about 2 hours, then Joseph came in and told about JG1 C kson... ,.294

1844 Jun 17

1844 Jun 27

1844 Aug

1844 Winter

1844 Nov

Minutes of the Nauvoo City Council published in the Nauvoo Neighbor:

"Mayor said he had never preached the revelation [on plural marriage?} in private, as he had in public-had not taught it to the anointed in the church in private, which statement many present confirmed, that on enquiring concerning the passage in the resurrection concerning "they neither marry nor are given in marriage, &c., he received for answer, men in this life must marry in view of eternity, otherwise they must remain as angels, or be single in heaven, which was the amount of the revelation referred to, and the Mayor spoke at considerable length in explanation of this principle and was willing for one to subscribe his name to declare the "Expositor" and whole establishment a nuisance. "295

Joseph Smith is killed in Carthage, Illinois.296

Joseph H. Jackson published in Warsaw, Illinois, a pamphlet entitled, A Narrative of the Adventures and Exf/.;erience of Joseph H Jackson in Nauvoo, Disclosing the Depths of Mormon Villainy.2 7

He wrote: " ...Joe's conduct with the women of Nauvoo surpasses everything in blackness that I have ever heard or read of I have from his own mouth, andfrom the mouth of his victims, statements which I dare not reveal; for the world will not believe that such corruption could possibly exist. Yet, if protection could be afforded to some of those females who were the victims of these wretches (the leaders in Nauvoo,) I could, I believe, from their own mouths, procure confessions that would startle the world. I have visited frequently, those women whom Joe supported/or the gratification of his lust -I have found them subsisting on the coarsest food, and not daring to utter a word of complaint, for they feared Joe Smith more than they did their God ...From my knowledge of the spiritual wife system I should think that the number of secret women in Nauvoo cannot be much less than six hundred. There are many married, as well as single women in this number ..."298 Jackson also tells a story about Joseph Smith asking for his brother, William Smith's wife. Also that he received a revelation that he should have his sister Lucy and his niece Lavina for spiritual wives.299

Cyrus H. Whelock reported that "...After Joseph Smith was dead I heard polygamy preached from the pulpit publicly in Nauvoo, by William Smith. He stated a great many things: undertook to prove that polygamy was right, and that that order of marriage would be restored, and he preached so many strange things there to the people that Elder John Taylor got up and corrected him. John Taylor said that he had no authority to preach or to teach such a thing, even if it was true, and said that it was unjust to his brother to be teaching it, and he was the only man I ever heard preach it in Nauvoo...Yes, sir, it was forbidden, and William Smith was cut off from the church because he preached that. That was in the winter of 1844... "300

Emily Dow Partridge, plural wife of JoseRh Smith, was sealed to Joseph Smith for eternity and to Brigham Young for time.3 1

1844 Nov 14



1845 and beyond



1845 Feb 3

1845 Feb 27

Benjamin F. Johnson wrote:

" ...On Nov. 14th Mary Ann Hale, given to me by the Prophet, was sealed tome as a plural wife by father John Smith, as directed by Prest. B. Young..."302


The Times and Seasons published a letter to the editor signed "An Old Man of lsrael." The letter supports the authority of the Twelve over Sidney Rigdon and includes the following: "...In the present instance, after the sham quotations of Sidney and his clique, from the Bible, Book of Mormon, and Doctrine and Covenants, to skulk off, under the 'dreadful splendor' of 'spiritual wifery, 'which is brought into the account as graciously as if the law of the land allowed a man a plurality of wives, is fiendish, and like the rest of Sidney's revelation, just because he wanted 'to go to Pittsburg and live. ' Wo to the man or men who will thus wilfully lie to injure an innocentpeople! The law of the land and the rules of the church do not allow one man to have more than one wife alive at once, but if any man's wife die, he has a right to marry another, and to be sealed to both for eternity; to the living and the dead' There is no law of God or man against it! This is all the spiritual wife system that ever was tolerated in the church, and they know it."303


Oliver H. Olney, an early member of the Church and brother-in-law of Marinda Johnson Hyde, published a pamphlet titled Spiritual Wifery at Nauvoo Exposed, also a True Account of Transactions in and about Nauvoo. 304 He wrote the following:

"...Another heart-rending/act in the present history of Nauvoo is that hundreds of honest hearted females are there, who have no means with which to get away, and scarce any means of subsistence there, except at the expense of virtue, and who are continually subject to the importunities of those fiends in human shape who, after having gratified their passion for lust, will, straightway, upon the public stand, declare before God and the Angles, that no system of spiritual wifery is practised [sicJ or tolerated by them, when perhaps some of their victims are at the very time upon their knees in secret beseeching God to forgive them for yielding in an unguarded moment to their seducers, and to open a way for their escape from the folds of their destroyers..305

An unsigned article was published in the Boston Investigator newspaper, which stated: "The spiritual wife doctrine I will explain, as taught me by Elder W_ • as taught by Joseph Smith, Brigham Young, Elder Adams,William Smith, and the rest of the Quorum, etc., etc. Joseph had a revelation from God that there were a number of spirits to be born into the world before their exaltation in the next; that Christ would not come until all these spirits received or entered their 'tabernacles of clay; '...that Godhad provided an honorable way for them to come forth-that was, by the Elders in Israel sealing up virtuous women; and as there was no provision made for woman in the Scriptures, their only chance of heaven was to be sealed up to some Elder for time and eternity..."306

[W.W.] Phelps sd 6 or 8 went over the boundaries of the U.S. to preach-Jos. Went to prayer - he then [?] a revelation. That Martin [Harris?] was to marry among the Lamanites - c that I was to preach [?] day- &c &c it was a long revelation - we have a living constitution - there is enough for everyday - if we die let us all die together, c there will be a jolly lot of spirits dancing into the next world - it won't be to hell, for there is no fiddles there---3 7

1845 May24

1845 Summer

1845 Aug 10

Parley P. Pratt published in the newspaper The Prophet in New York thefollowing warning:

"...Again, beware of seducing spirits, and doctrines of devils, as first introduced by John C. Bennet, under the name of the 'SPIRITUAL WIFE' doctrine; and still agitated by the Pittsburg Seer, and his followers under the same title.

It is but another name for whoredom, wicked and unlawful connection, and every kind of confusion, corruption and abomination:

Should any elder or member, come unto you professing to hold to any such doctrine or practice, either secretly or publicly, you may be sure he is not of God; and it becomes your duty to reject him, and report him to the presidency of the church, or to some tribunal, of the church where he is responsible for his doctrine and conduct. if this is done and testimony adduced he will be immediately disfellowshiped, andexpelled from the church...

For know assuredly that no on has been authorized to teach, practice,or introduce any such doctrine in any of the branches of the church Nor is there any such doctrine known, held, or practised, as a principle of the Latter Day Saints. 'THE SPIRITUAL WIFE DOCTRINE, ' of J C. Bennet, and numerous other apostates, is as foreign from the real principles of the church as the devil is from God, or as sectarianism is from christianity... ,,JOB

John Hawley stated in his testimony for the Temple Lot Case that "... The first indications that ever came to my knowledge that polygamy was being practiced in the Mormon Church was in 1845 in Wisconsin, after we went to Wisconsin the second time from Nauvoo.  That was where !first heard of polygamy or plurality of wives.  It was at Prairie Lacrosse...Lyman Wight was there with his little band. He was the head of the organization of the church there at that time. Lyman Wight went from Wisconsin to Texas and his organization went with him, most of them did. !first heard of the practice of polygamy when !was just starting for Texas in the summer of1845 and we were on the move for Texas. Lyman Wight had performed the ceremony and had sealed a young lady, near us, to a man who had another wife. He had just done it a short time before we started. I know this is so for at the time I was paying my regards to the young lady myself and I didn't know for some time that she was another man's wife... "309

Brigham Young wrote to William Smith:

"... You refer to "Joseph's teachings up stairs in the brick store" that theTwelve have power to build up the kingdom of God &c. "which the Twelve well recollect.-- and they also recollect that Joseph said that the sealing.power is always vested in one man, and that there never was, nor never would be but one man on the earth at a time to hold the sealing pewkeys of the sealing power in the church. that all sea/ings must be performed by the man holding the keys. or by his dictation, and that man is the president of the church.

Hyrum held the patriarchal Office legitimately. so do you. Hyum was counsellor. so are you. but the sealing power was not in Hyrum legitimately neither did he act on the sealing principle only as he was dictated by Joeph ine',ery' Of1SC. This was proven for Hyrum did in enc case undertake to seal without counsel. & Joseph told him if he did not stop it he would go to hell and all those he sea/d with him..."310

1845 Aug 17​​William Clayton wrote: " ...At the stand to day Wm. Smith preached to the saints "the first chapter of the gospel according to St Wm" as he termed it. It was just afull declaration of his belief in the doctrine of a pluralityof wives &c. The people appeared disgusted and many leftthe ground. His object was evidently to raise an influence against the Twelve especially Brigham and Heber for he intimated in strong terms that they were practicing such things in secret but he was not afraid to do it openly. His course to day will evidently hurt him in the estimation of the saints more than any thing he has done before ..."311

1845 Fall

1845 Oct 8


1846Jan 12

1846 Jan 13

1846 Jan 14

1846 Jan 15

William Griffiths testified in the Temple Lot Case, in 1892, that:

"... The first time I ever heard of the doctrine of polygamy was in the fall of1845... it was introduced about a year after the death of Joseph Smith...The doctrine of polygamy was a matter of common talk at Nauvoo in the winter of 1845 and '46 and I stated that I had heard rumors of it before it was.finally presented to the quorum...were called together and instructed that that was a doctrine that we would have to preach if we were sent out, and 1 repudiated it, and was cut off from the quorum for my action. I was expelled from the quorum because I refused to agree to teach and preach polygamy..."312


William Clayton recorded in his journal, "Olive Frost  was buried at noon."313

Emma Smith told Lovina Smith Walker that "she, Emma Smith, was present and witnessed the marrying or sealing of Eliza Partridge, Emily Partridge,Maria Lawrence and Sarah Lawrence to her husband, Joseph Smith, and that she gave her consent thereto. "314


Sarah Ann Whitney was resealed to Joseph Smith for eternity and to HeberC. Kimball for time by Brigham Young in the Nauvoo Temple.315 She had been sealed to Joseph Smith July 27, 1842. 316


Eliza Maria Partridge was resealed to Joseph Smith for eternity and to Amasa M. Lyman for time by Brigham Young in the Nauvoo Temple.317 She had been sealed to Joseph Smith March 8, 1843.318

Louisa Beamon was resealed to Joseph Smith for eternity and to BrighamYoung for time by Heber C. Kimball in the Nauvoo Temple.319 She had been sealed to Joseph Smith April 5, 1841320

Emily Dow Partridge was resealed to Joseph Smith for eternity and toBrigham Young for time by Heber C. Kimball in the Nauvoo Temple.321She had been sealed to Joseph Smith March 4, 1843 322

Olive Andrews was sealed to Joseph Smith for eternity and to Brigham Young for time by Heber C. Kimball in the Nauvoo Temple.323 There is no evidence of a previous sealing to Joseph Smith. She received her endowments under the name of Olive Littlefield. She may have been married to Lyman 0. Littlefield. 324



Lucy Walker was resealed to Joseph Smith for eternity and to Heber C. Kimball for time by Brigham Young in the Nauvoo Temple.325 She had been sealed to Joseph SmithMay 1, 1843 by William Clayton.326

Sarah Marietta Kingsley was sealed to Joseph Smith for eternity and to John Smith for time by Heber C. Kimball in the Nauvoo Temple.327 She was married to non-Mormon John Cleveland.328 There is no evidence of a previous sealing to Joseph Smith.

1846 Jan 17

1846 Jan 22

1846 Jan 24

1846 Jan 26

Jane Tibbetts was sealed to Joseph Smith for eternity and to Elam Luddington for time by Heber C. Kimball in the Nauvoo Temple.329 There is no evidence of a previous sealing to Joseph Smith. She received her endowments under the name of Jane Bleven330

Phebe Watrous was sealed to Joseph Smith fo  eternity and to Lucian Woodworth for time by Brigham Young in the Nauvoo Temple.33

There is no evidence of a previous sealing to Joseph Smith. She received her endowments under the name of Phebe Woodworth332


Mary Elizabeth Rollins was resealed to Joseph Smith for eternity and toBrigham Young for time by Heber C. Kimball in the Nauvoo Temple.333She had been sealed to Joseph Smith in February 1842 334

Elizabeth Davis was sealed to Joseph Smith for eternity and to Cornelius P. Lott for time by Brigham Young in the Nauvoo Temple.335There is no evidence ofa previous sealing to Joseph Smith. She received her endowments under the name of ElizabethDurfee. She was married to Jabez Durfee.336


Lucinda Pendleton was sealed to Joseph Smith for eternity and to GeorgeWashington Harris for time by Brigham Young in the Nauvoo Temple.337There is no evidence of a pervious sealing to Joseph Sm th. She received her endowments under the name of Lucinda Harris. She had been married to George Washington Harris since November 30, 1830.338


Mariah Lawrence was resealed to Joseph Smith for eternity and to Almon W. Babbitt for time by Heber C. Kimball in the Nauvoo Temple.339 Mariahand her sister Sarah were sealed to Joseph Smith about May 1843.340

Desdimona Fullmer was resealed to Joseph Smith for eternity and to Ezra TaftBenson for time by Brigham Young in the Nauvoo Temple.341 She had been sealedto Joseph Smith in July 1843.342

Martha McBride was resealed to Joseph Smith for eternity and to Heber C.Kimball for time by Amasa M. Lyman in the Nauvoo Temple.343 She wassealed to Joseph Smith about August 1842. She was married to Vinson Knight.344

Sylva Porter Sessions was resealed to Joseph Smith for eternity and to Heber C. Kimball for time by Amasa M. Lr,man in the Nauvoo Temple.345 She had been sealed to Joseph Smith February 8, 1842. 46



Sarah Lawrence was resealed to Joseph Smith for eternityand to Heber C. Kimball for time by Amasa M. Lyman inthe Nauvoo Temple.347 Sarah and her sister Mariah were sealed to Joseph Smith about May 1843.348

1846 Jan 27

1846 Jan 31

1846 Feb 2

1846 Feb 3

Apia Woodman Sanburn was sealed to Joseph Smith for eternity and toGad Yale for time by Heber C. Kimball in the Nauvoo Temple.349 There is no evidence that she was previously married to Joseph Smith.

Cordelia Calista Morley was sealed to Joseph Smith for eternity and toWalter Frederick Cox for time by Amasa M. Lyman in the NauvooTemple.350 She said that Joseph Smith had asked her but she had turned him down when he was alive.351


Rhoda Richards was resealed to Joseph Smith for eternity and to Brigham Young for time by Heber C. Kimball in the Nauvoo Temple.352 She had been sealed to Joseph Smith June 12, 1843.353

Zina Diantha Huntington was resealed to Joseph Smith for eternity and toBrigham Young for time by Heber C. Kimball in the Nauvoo Temple.354She had been sealed to Joseph Smith October 27, 1841.355

Nancy Maria Winchester was sealed to Joseph Smith for eternity and to Heber C. Kimball for time by Brigham Young in the Nauvoo Temple.356There is no evidence that she was previously sealed to Joseph Smith.

Eliza Roxcy Snow was resealed to Joseph Smith for eternity and toBrigham Young for time by Heber C. Kimball in the Nauvoo Temple.357She had been sealed to Joseph Smith July 29, 1842.358

Mary Huston was sealed to Joseph Smith for eternity andto Heber C. Kimball for time by Amasa M. Lyman in the Nauvoo Temple.359 There is no evidence that she was previously sealed to Joseph Smith.

1846 Feb 4


Elvira Anna Cowles was sealed to Joseph Smith for eternity and toJonathan Harriman Holmes for time by Brigham Young in the Nauvoo Temple.360 She had been sealed to Joseph Smith June I, 1843.361 She was married to Jonathan Harriman Holmes civilly on December I, 1842 by Joseph Smith.362

Helen Mar Kimball was resealed to Joseph Smith for eternity and to HoraceKimball Whitney for time by Brigham Young in the Nauvoo Temple.36 Shemay have been sealed to Joseph Smith in May 1843. But there is no record of the sealing and she did not talk about it.3 4


On March 11, 1875, William E. McLellin wrote to John L. Taughber,"Joseph's widow, told me in Nauvoo, in 1847, that she knew that Joseph practiced it [polygamy] himself; and I believed her then, and so I do now.She said she knew that Joseph did have the Polygamic revelation. No doubt they carried it to an alarming extent in Nauvoo before they were killed... "365and again on December 6, 1875, he wrote to Taughber, "I visited Mrs. Emma Smith in Nauvoo, in 1847. She told me plainly and frankly that her husband did receive and deliver the Polygamic revelation himself and she knew he practiced its provisions. And she said she knew he had committed adultery with girls previous to that. ,




1855 Nov

1861 Jan 10

1861 Aug 12

Thomas Bullock, a clerk in the Church Historian's Office added JosephSmith letter to Nancy Rigdon to Joseph Smith's history under the date of27 August 1842.367

William E. McLellin wrote to Joseph Smith III:

" ...And in the same speech you go strongly to condemn the principle and practice of Polygamy. I do not wish to say hard things to You of your Father, but Joseph, if You will only go to you own dear mother, she can tell you that he believed in Polygamy and practiced it long before his violent death! That he delivered a revelation sanctioning, regulating, and establishing it-and that he finally burned the Awful document before her eyes. Elder Marks can tell You that  (before its conflagration) it was read in the High council, over which he presided. Your Mother told me these items when I was in Nauvoo​368

W.W. Phelps wrote to Brigham Young on 12 August 1861 that Joseph Smith had a revelation on I 7 July 1831 for the Lamanite missionaries which stated: "​For it is my will, that, in time, ye should take unto you wives of the Lamanites andNephites, that their posterity may become white, delightsome and Just; for even now their females are more virtuous than the Gentiles ..."369 Phelps also stated: "About three years after this [was] given, I asked brotherJoseph privately, how "we" that were mentioned in the revelation, could take "wives" .from the natives, as we were all married men? He replied instantly, "In the same manner that Abraham took Hagar and Katurah; andJacob took Rachel, Bilhah and Zilfah, by revelation: the saints of the Lord are always directed by revelation. "37


1866 Oct 8​​In Conference, October 8, 1866, in Salt Lake City,Brigham Young stated: "Right north of the Masonic Hall in Nauvoo the ground was not fenced; this was in the yearI 842.

There were some rails laid along to fence up some lots. Hyrums saw me and said, 'brother Brigham, I want to talk to you.' We went together and sat upon those rails that were [?] up. He commenced by saying: 'I have a question to ask you. In the first place I say[?J to you, that I do know that you and the Twelve knows some things that I do not know. I can understand this by the motions and talk and doings of Joseph, and I know there is something or other which I do not understand, that is revealed to the Twelve. Is this so?' I replied. I do not know anything about what you know, but I know what I know. Then he said, 'I have mistrusted(?J for a long time that Joseph has received a revelation that a man should have more than one wife, and he has hinted as much to me, but I would not bear it. '...I said to him, 'brother Hyrum, I will tell you about this thing which you do not know if you will swear with an uplifted hand before God, that you will never say another word against Joseph and his doings, and the doctrine he is preaching to the people. ' He replied, 'I will do it with all my heart and he stood upon his feet, saying, 'I want to know the truth and to be saved. And he made a covenant there, never again to bring forward one argument or use any influence against Joseph's doings. Joseph had many wives sealed to him. I told Hyrum the whole story, and he bowed to it and wept like a child, and said God be praised, He went to Joseph and told him what he had learned, and renewed his covenant with Joseph, and they went heart and hand together while they lived, and they were together when they died, and they are together now defending lsrael... ,371


1869 May 1

1869 Jun 6

John Hawley wrote: "...what I heard John Olger [Alger} one of the first(or among the first) members of the Church he told me his sister was seald [sicJ to Joseph in Curtin [Kirtland], this he Said to me in I 868..."372


Emily D. P. Young made signed statement concerning her marriage toJoseph Smith on May 11, 1843.373

Joseph Bates Noble made an affidavit that "Joseph Smith taught him theprinciple of celestial or plural marriage, or a plurality of wives... " 374

1869 Jun 15

1869 Jun 16

1869 Jul 1

1869 Aug 28

1869 Sep 5

1869 Oct 9

1870 Mar 4

1872 Feb 22

David Fullmer gave a signed statement that Hyrum Smith, on August 12,1843, read to the High Council in Nauvoo, Illinois the revelation on Plural Marriage.375

Lovina Smith Walker made a signed statement concerning Emma Smith's knowledge of pIural marriage.376

Eliza M Partridge Lyman made an affidavit concerning her marriage toJoseph Smith on May 11, 1843.3 7

Lorenzo Snow made an affidavit stating that in April 1843, Joseph Smithtaught him concerning the principle of plural marriage.378

John Benbow made an affidavit stating that in the spring or summer of1843, Hyrum Smith taught him and his wife concerning the principle of plural marriage.379


Elvria A. C. Holmes made an affidavit stating that she was sealed to Joseph Smith in Nauvoo by Heber C. Kimball in the presents of Vilate Kimball andEliza Partridge.380

Adeline Brooks Andrus Benson made an affidavit that she was married as aplural wife to Ezra T. Benson by Hyrum Smith.381

Apostle and Church Historian, George A. Smith wrote Joseph Smith IIIconcerning Joseph Smith and Plural Marriage.38


Benjamin F. Johnson made an affidavit that Joseph Smith "commenced toopen up to me the principle of plural or celestial marriage; but I was more astonished by his asking me for my sister Almera to be his wife..."383

William E. McLellin wrote to "My Old Friends" from Independence,Missouri,"...Young Joseph said when he assumed his place that he' believed his Father was a good man. ' 'I never can believe my father taught Polygamy. ' Now his Mother told me that 'She knew he did.' He also said at that gathering, that 'the Book ofCovenant[s], was auxiliary to the Bible. ' They also published in all their papers that hewas a 'martyred Prophet. ' If he died a martvr then wickedness was metamorphosed into righteousness..."384



1872 Jul

William E. McLellin wrote to Joseph Smith III. He stated,

"Dr. F. G. Williams practiced with me in Clay Co. Mo. During the latter part of 1838. And he told me that at your birth your father committed anact with a Miss Hill-a hired girl. Emma saw him, and spoke to him. He desisted, but Mrs. Smith refused to be satisfied. He called in Dr. Wlliams, 0. Cowdery, and S. Ridon to reconcile Emma. But she told them just as the circumstances took place. He found he was caught. He confessed humbly, and begged forgiveness. Emma and all forgave him. She told me this story was true!! Again I told her [Emma} I heard that one night she missed Joseph and Fanny Alger. She went to the barn and saw him and Fanny in the barn together alone.

She looked through a crack and saw the transaction!! She told me this story too was verily true...You referred to Polygamy. Now let me tell you my dear Sir. I asked your Mother particularly upon this point. She said, one night after she and Joseph had retired for the night, he told her that the doctrine and practice of Polygamy was going to ruin the church. He wished her to get up and burn the revelation. She refused to touch it even with tong[sj. He rose from his bed and pulled open the fire with his fingers, and put the revelation in and burned it up. But copies of it were extant, so it was preserved..."385

1872 Jul 26

1874 Feb 16

1874-75 Winter

1875 Mar 11

1875Mar 21

Brigham Young stated at a meeting in the 14th Ward as recorded by Charles L. Walker,

"...that while Joseph and Oliver were translating the Book of Mormon [sic}, they had a revelation that the order of Patriarchal Marriage and theSealing was right. Oliver said unto Joseph, "Br Joseph, why dont we goin to the Order of Polygamy, and practice it as the ancients did? We know it is true, then why delay?" Joseph's reply was "I know that we know it is true, and from God, but the time has not yet come. " This did not seem to suit Oliver, who expressed a determination to go into the order of Plural Marriage anyhow, a/tho he was ignorant of the order and pattern and the results. Joseph said, "Oliver if you go into this thing it is not with my faith or consent. " Disregarding the counsel of Joseph, Oliver Cowdery took to wife Miss Annie Lyman, cousin to Geo. A. Smith. From that time he went into darkness and lost the spirit. Annie Lyman is still alive, a witness to these things.386

William Clayton made a signed statement concerning Joseph Smith's teaching of plural marriage and plural marriage activities in Nauvoo, Illinois.387

Anthony Metcalf interviewed Martin Harris in which Harris talked about Plural Marriage.388

William E. McLellin wrote to John L. Taughber, "Joseph's widow, told me in Nauvoo, in 1847, that she knew that Joseph practiced it [polygamy] himself; and I believed her then, and so I do now. She said she knew thatJoseph did have the Polygamic revelation. No doubt they carried it to an alarming extent in Nauvoo before they were killed .."389

Joshua Davis visited John Whitmer in Far West, Missouri and stated, "Mr. Whitmer inquired if the Prophet Joseph Smith ever gave a revelation onthe subject of celestial marriage, and, on receiving an answer in theaffirmative, requested Mr. Davis to send him a copy of it, for he would like to read it, as he had heard itdenied that a revelation on that subject had ever been given. ,,390

1875 Jul 19

1875 Sep 28

1875 Dec 6

Joseph F. Smith wrote to Orson Pratt that a "few years ago [I] tried to getaffidavits regarding Joseph Smith and 'celestial marriage' .. .I wasastonished at the scarcity of evidence. I might say almost total absence ofdirect evidence upon the subject as connected with the prophet Joseph himself... "391

J. H. Beadle wrote about his interview with William E. McLellin in Independence, Missouri. He wrote:

"He [Mclellin} also informed me of the spot where the first wellauthenticated case of po lygamy took place, in which Joseph Smith was"sealed" to the hired girl. The "sealing" took place in a barn on the haymow, and was witnes[s}ed by Mrs. Smith through a crack in the door! The Doctor [Mclellin} was so distressed about this case, (it created some scandal at the time among the Saints,) that long afterwards when he visited Mrs. Emma Smith at Nauvoo, he charged her as she hoped for salvation to tell him the truth about it. And she then and there declared on her honor that it was a fact-"saw it with her own eyes. " The long disputed question, then, as to whether the Prophet did practice polygamy, is now effectually set at rest; and Brigham is a little ahead of young Joe on that point."392

William E. McLellin wrote to John L Traughber:

"I visited Mrs. Emma Smith in Nauvoo, in 1847. She told me plainly and frankly that her husband did receive and deliver the Polygamic revelation himself and she knew he practiced its provisions. And she said she knew he had committed adultery with girls previous to that.393


1878 Jul 7

1878 Sep 12

Joseph F. Smith stated on July 7, 1878 in the Salt Lake Tabernacle:

"...To put this matter more correctly before you, I here declare that the principle of plural marriage was not first revealed on the 12th day ofJuly, 1843. It was written for the first time on, that date, but it had been revealed to the Prophet many years before that, perhaps as early as 1832. About this time, or subsequently, Joseph, the Prohet, intrusted [sicJ this fact to Oliver Cowdery; he abused the confidence imposed in him, and brought reproach upon himself, and thereby upon the church by "running before he was sent," and "taking liberties without license, " so to speak, hence the publication, by 0. Cowdery, about this time, of an article on marriage, which was carefully worded, and afterwards found its way into the Doctrine and Covenants without authority. This article explains itself to those who understand the facts, and is an indisputable evidence of the early existence of the knowledge of the principle of patriarchal marriage by the Prophet Joseph, and also by Oliver Cowdery ..."394

Orson Pratt spoke at a meeting in Plano, Illinois where he told that LymanJohnson said that Joseph Smith learned about plural marriage as early as1831. He also told about plural marriage in Nauvoo, Illinois and "referred to his own trial in regard to this matter in Nauvoo, and said it was because he got his information from a wicked source, from those disaffected [Sarah Pratt, his wife and John C. Bennett], but as soon as he learned the truth he was satisfied "395


1878 Dec 14

1879 Feb

1879 Apr 30

1879 Oct 1

1879 Oct 15

1879 Oct 17

1879 Oct 22

William E. McLellin wrote to John L Traughber, " ...Mrs. Smith told me that she knew her husband practiced both adultery and Spiritual Wifery1And that she also knew that he had the Polygamic revelation..."396


Joseph Smith III interviewed his mother, Emma Hale Smith concerning polygamy.397


Emma Hale Smith Bidamon, died in Nauvoo, Illinois398

The Saints' Herald published "Last Testimony of Sister Emma." It is an interview between Joseph Smith III and his mother, Emma Hale Smith. The following was published: "Q. What about the revelation on Polygamy? Did Joseph Smith have anything like it? What of spiritual wifery? A. There was no revelation on either polygamy or spiritual wives. There were some rumors of something of the sort, of which I asked my husband He assured me that all there was of it was, that, in a chat about plural wives. he had said, "Well, such a system might possibly be, if everybody was agreed to it, and would behave as they should; but they would not; and, besides, it was contrary to the will of heaven. " No such thing as polygamy, or spiritual wifery, was taught, publicly or privately, before my husband's death, that I have now, or ever had any knowledge of Q. Did he not have other wives than yourself? A. He had no other wife but me; nor did he to my knowledge ever have. Q. Did he not hold marital relation with women other than yourself? A. He did not have improper relations with any woman that ever came to my knowledge. Q. Was there nothing about spiritual wives that you recollect? A. At one time my husband came to me and asked me if I had heard certain rumors about spiritual marriages, or anything of the kind; and assured me that if I had, that they were without foundation; that there was no such doctrine, and never should be with his knowledge, or consent. I know that he had no other wife or wives than myself, in any sense, with spiritual or otherwise..."399

L. John Nuttall wrote: "I met with the Council of Apostles at the Endowment House­ Elder Jos F. Smith presented a number of the "SaintsAdvocate" containing a statement said to be made by Emma Smith pertaining to the Prophet Joseph Smith & Polygamy. Prest Taylor spoke of his knowledge of the principle [sic] from the Prophet Joseph personally.400

Joseph F. Smith wrote to the editor of the Deseret News concerning Emma Smith Bidamon's statement and his collection of data relating to the history of plural marriage.401

The Deseret Weekly News published a statement by Eliza R. Snow responding to Emma Hale Smith Bidamon's "Last Testimony of Sister Emma," published in the Saints' Advocate. She stated: "I once dearly loved'Sister Emma' and now, for me to believe that she, a once highly honored woman, should have sunk to low, even in her own estimation, as to deny what she knew to be true, seems a palpable absurdity. If what purports to be her 'last testimony' was really her testimony, she died with a libel on her lips-a libel against her husband-against his wives-against the truth. and a libel against God... It is a fact that Sister Emma, of her own free will and choice, gave her husband four wives, two of whom are now living and ready to testify that she, not only gave them to her husband, but that she taught them the doctrine of plural marriage and urged them to accept it."402

1879 Nov 1

1879 Nov 15

1879 Jun 28

1880 Nov 23

1881 Jul 5

1882 Apr

1882 Jun 12

Eliza R. Snow's statement in the Deseret News was republished in theWoman's Exponent. 403

Joseph Smith, III, responded to Joseph F. Smith and Eliza R. Snow in theSaints Herald using statements denying plural marriage published in theTimes and Seasons during his father's lifetime and signed by Eliza R. Snow and other Church leaders.404

L. John Nuttall wrote that President John Tayor related, "...a circumstance of having met the Prophet Joseph at one time when the principle of the revelation on celestial marriage was revealed, and had been talked about some. The Prophet was on horseback riding into town, having been on horseback riding out. On meeting me we passed the complement of the day, when the Prophet said, 'These things must be accepted and entered into, for they cannot be trifled with and the keys will soon be turned unless they are accepted. ' These remarks set me to thinking, and I soon took steps in accordance therewith.405


Joseph C. Kingsbury submitted a bill to the Church for his financial support of Sarah Ann Whitney. The note in L. John Nuttall's handwriting states:"Nov. 23, 1880, Joseph C. Kingsbury asked John Taylor that an $8000 debt to the church be remitted in consideration of services he had rendered in Nauvoo, and after leaving there, to the Prophet Joseph. in keeping one of his wives, Sarah Whitney, daughter of Bishop N K. Whitney."406


Franklin D. Richards wrote Joseph F. Smith about an experience he had when he was a missionary in northern Indiana where he met a SisterAkers, who had lived in Kirtland. She stated "that the doctrine of 'spiritual wives' as she then learned it, was a true doctrine, that it had been revealed to the Prophet Joseph Smith and would sometime be put in practice in the Church-that it was not then permitted, but that I [Elder RichardsJ would live to see it taught, accepted, lived in and practically adopted as a doctrine and ordinance of the Church..."407


Sylvia Sessions Lyon Clark, on her death bed, told her daughter, JosephineRosetta Lyon Fisher, that she "was the daughter of the Prophet Joseph Smith. she having been sealed to the Prophet at the time that her husband,Mr. Lyon had was out of fellowship with the Church. She also told me that she was sealed to the Prophet about the same time that Zina D. Huntington and Eliza R. Snow were thus sealed."408


Howard Coray gave a signed statement that Hyrum Smith taught him and his wife, Martha Jane Knowlton Coray, the principle of PluralMarriage on July 22, 1843.409

1882 Oct 14

1883 Jun 11

1883 Sep 5

1884 Dec to

1885 Aug

1885 Jan 10

1885 Dec 23

1886 Jan

1886 Jan 31

L. John Nuttall wrote: "...President Taylor refer[Jing to the Revelation upon Celestial Marri[a]ge said 'When this principle [w]as first made known to us by Joseph Smith it was in Nauvoo [Illinois], and many of you will remember the place very well. We were assembled in the little office over the brick store, there being present Bros B[righam] Young, Heber C. Kimball, Orson Hyde & myself Bro Willard Richards may have been present too, but I am not positive. Upon that occasion, Joseph Smith laid before us the whole principle pertain[in]g to that doctrine, and we believed it. Having done this Joseph felt, as he said, that he had got a big burden rolled off his shoulders. He felt the responsibility of that matter resting heavily upon him. Notwithstanding, however, that we received the princ[i]ple & believed it, yet we were in no great hurry to enter into it. Sometime after this, I was riding out of Nauvoo when I met Joseph coming in. We met in the old graveyard-if any of you remember the place-and I moved to Bro Joseph and he moved to me. I think we were both on horse back, but of that I am not sure. Said he, 'Bro Taylor stop' and I stopped He looked me right in the eye, and spoke with all the solemnity that I ever heard him speak[;] and he: 'Brother Taylor, that principle has got to be complied with forthwith; and if not, the Key will be [re]turned. ' He had told us before that if this principle was not entered into, the Kingdom could not go one step further... ,,410

At a quarterly Stake conference held at Centerville, Davis County, Utahan affidavit made by Thomas Grover concerning Hyrum Smith reading the revelation on plural marriage to the Nauvoo High Council was read to the congregation. Then Thomas Grover spoke on the same subject.411

Joseph Bates Noble also spoke concerning Joseph Smith's teaching of plural marriage and then President John Taylor and George Q. Cannon spoke on the same subject.41

Mercy R. Thompson wrote a letter to Joseph Smith III concerning her knowledge of plural marriage in Nauvoo, Illinois.413

The Woman's Exponent published Emily Dow Partridge Young'sAutobiography which contained information about her marriage to Joseph Smith.414


Thomas Grover gave a signed statement concerning Hyrum Smith reading the revelation on Plural Marriage to the High Council in Nauvoo, Illinois, August 12, 1843.415


At a meeting in Rockville, Utah, Allen J. Stout testified that he overheardJoseph Smith and Emma Smith talking about plural marriage.416


The Ogden Herald published an article about Reorganized Church askingLeonard Soby to make a statement concerning Plural Marriage in Nauvoo, Illinois.417


Mercy R. Thompson wrote a letter to A. M. Musser of the Church Historian's Office concerning her knowledge of Plural Marriage in Nauvoo, Illinois. She included a copy of a letter she wrote to Joseph Smith III onSeptember 5, 1883.418




1886 Feb 26

1886 May 20

1886 May 22

1888 Jan

1892 Jan 25

1892 Mar 19

1899 Jan 27

1903 Apr-Oct

Leonard Soby wrote a letter to James S. Brooks confirming that the revelation on Plural Marriage was read in a Nauvoo High Council meeting. This letter was published in the Deseret News, March 26, 1886 419

Joseph F. Smith wrote: "The great and glorious principle of plural marriage was first revealed to Joseph Smith in 1831, but being forbidden to make it public, or to teach it as a doctrine of the Gospel, at that time, he confided the facts to only a very few of his intimate associates. Among them were Oliver Cowdery and Lyman E. Johnson, the latter confiding that fact to his traveling companion, Elder Orson Pratt in the year 1832."420

Joseph C. Kingsbury gave a signed statement concerning his copying the revelation on plural marriage and Joseph Smith's marriage to Sarah Ann Whitney.421


W.R. Hine's affidavit concerning "spiritual wives" in Kirtland was published.422

Mary Elizabeth Rollins Lightner wrote John Henry Smith which stated: "...If! could have an op[p]ortunity of conversing with you, and Brother Joseph [F. Smith] I could explain some things in regard to my living withMr. L[ightner] after becoming the Wife of another, which would thrown light, on what now seems mysterious-and you would be perfectly satisfied with me. I write this; because I have heard that it had been commented onto my injury. I have done the best I could, and Joseph will sanction my action-I cannot explain things in this Letter-some day you will know all.That is, if I ever have an op[p]ortunity of conversing with either of you..."423

Emily Dow Partridge Young gave a deposition, in Salt Lake City, for use in the Temple Lot hearing.424

Emily Dow Partridge Young wrote a letter to W. Collins, Wantagon, Illinois which stated:

"I received your letter of the 22nd inst. Yesterday; asking the question; didJoseph Smith the Prophet claim to have a revelation on polygamy or, plural marriage. You say the Josephites deny that he did. I can answer that question in a few words. It is a positive fact that he did so claim and teach; and also practice the same. I am a living witness of the fact. With me it is neither guesswork or hear say. I had it from his own mouth; to me it wasthe word of the Lord. I accepted the pure and sacred principle and was married or, sealed to him as his wife for time and all eternity in Nauvoo 1843. I know positively that he had other wives. 1 have witnessed his performing the ceremony of plural marriage for other parties ..."425


Benjamin F. Johnson wrote to George S. Gibbs:

" ...And there was some trouble with Oliver Cowdery, and whisper said it was relating to a girl then living in his (the Prophet's) family; and I was afterwards told by Warren Parish, that he himself and Oliver Cowdery did know that Joseph and Fannie Alger as wife, for they were spied upon and found together. And I can now see that at Nauvoo, so at Kirtland, that the suspicion of knowledge of the Prophet's plural relation was one of the causes of apostasy and disruption at Kirtland, although at the time there was little said publicly on the subject ..."426

1905 Apr 14

1905 Jul 28

1915 Feb 24

Mary Elizabeth Rollins Lightner spoke to the students at Brigham YoungUniversity and told them about her sealing to Joseph Smith.427 She also stated: " ...! know he [Joseph Smith] had six wives and I have known some of them from childhood up. I know he had three children They told me. I think two are living today but they are not known as his children as they go by other names ... " The transcript states that she said: "... My husband did not belong to the Church. I begged and pled with him to join but he would not...After he said this I went forward and was sealed to Joseph for Eternity ..."428

John Wickliff Rigdon gave an affidavit stating that Joseph Smith asked his sister Nancy Rigdon to be his plural wife and that Nancy turned him down.429

Josephine Rosetta Lyon Fisher signed a statement stating that her mother,Sylvia Sessions Clark Lyon, told her that she [Josephine] was the daughter of Joseph Smith. This statement was witnessed by Andrew Jenson, Joseph Grant and I. F. Fisher.430



Diary of Charles Lowell Walker, edited by A. Karl Larson and Katharine Miles Larson, v. I (Logan, Utah: Utah State University Press, 1980, 349

2 Book of Mormon: Another Testament of Jesus Christ (Salt Lake City:The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints), 121

3 Book of Mormon: Another Testament of Jesus Christ (Salt Lake City:The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints), 505

4 "Mormonism," Susquehanna Register, and Northern Pennsylvanian,9 ( I May 1834), I; reprinted in The New York Baptist Register (Utica,New York), 11 (13 June 1834) and E. D. Howe, Mormonism Unvailed: or, a Faithful Account of That Singular Imposition and Delusion.from Its Rise to the Present Times (Painesville, Ohio: E. D. Howe, 1834), 268-69

5 Early Mormon Documents, Volume JV, compiled and edited by DanVogel (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 2002), 296-97.

6 History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day saints, Period I,volume!, edited by B. H. Roberts (Salt Lake City: The Deseret Book Company, 1973), 90-91

7 Minutes, 27 February 1845, in the handwriting of Thomas Bullock inGeneral Minutes (CR I 00/318, box I, folder 29), Church

History Library, Salt Lake City, Utah

8 "Orson Pratt's Testimony," in Andrew Jenson, "Plural Marriage," TheHistorical Record 6 (May 1887), 230 and "Report of Elders

Orson Pratt and Joseph F. Smith," The Latter-day Saints Millennial Star,40 (December 9, 1878), 770-71

9 "Funeral Services of Sister Elizabeth A. Whitney," Deseret EveningNews, February 17, 1882, [p. 3]

10 "Additional Testimony," in Andrew Jenson, "Plural Marriage," TheHistorical Record 6 (May 1887), 232

11 Helen Mar Kimball Whitney, Why We Practice Plural Marriage, (SaltLake City: Juvenile Instructor Office, 1884), 53

12 Deseret News, May 20, 1886 as quoted in Andrew Jenson, TheHistorical Record, 6 (May 1887), 219.

13 W.W. Phelps to Brigham Young, 12 August 1861, Revelations Collection, LDS Church History Library, Salt Lake City, Utah

14 W. W. Phelps to Brigham Young, 12 August 1861, RevelationsCollection, LDS Church History Library, Salt Lake City, Utah

15 Ezra Booth, September 20, 1831 Nelson, Portage County [Ohio] toEdward Partridge, published in Ohio Star, 2 (November 24, 183 I)

16 See the discussion in H. Dean Garrett, "Ziba Peterson: From Missionary to Hanging Sheriff," The Nauvoo Journal, 9 (Spring 1997), 28-32 and Irene Johnson and Kahile Mehr, "The Other Missionary," unpublished paper given at the Mormon History Association annual meeting, I 99I.

17 Ezra Booth to Rev. I Eddy, December 6, 1831 published in"Mormonism - Nos. VIIJ-IX," in The Ohio Star, December 8, I 831.

18 "Discourse by Elder Joseph F. Smith, Delivered in the Tabernacle, Salt Lake City, Sunday Morning, July 7, 1878," Journal of Discourses (Liverpool: William Budge, 1880), v. 20:29


19 William E. McLellin to Joseph Smith, July 1872, Community of Christ Library and Archives, Independence, Missouri; also publishedin The William E. McLellin Papers, 1854-1880, ed. by Stan Larsen and Samuel J. Passey (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 2007) 488-489. See also Robert D. Hutchins, "Joseph Smith IIJ: Moderate Mormon," MA thesis, Brigham Young University, 1977, p,age 79-81​.

0 A[nthony] Metcalf, Ten Years Before the Mast. Shipwrecks and Adventures at Sea1Religious Customs of the People of India and Burmah's Empire. How I Became a Mormon and Why I Became an Infidel! ([Malad City, Idaho]: n.p. [1888]), 70-73.


21 Arthur B. Deming, "Naked Truths About Mormonism," I (January1888), 2-3

22 The Johnson family arrived in Kirtland, Ohio in June 1833 and left inJuly 1838. My Life's Review: Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin Johnson (Provo, Utah: Grandin Book Company, 1997), 83

23 Myrtle Stevens Hyde, Orson Hyde: the Olive Branch of Israel (SaltLake City: Agreka Books, 2000), 496 and "Hyde, Orson," in in Andrew Jenson, Latter-day Saint Biographical Encyclopedia (Salt Lake City: Andrew Jenson History Company, 190 I), 81

24 An American Prophet's Record: the Diaries and Journals of JosephSmith, edited by Scott H. Faulring (Salt Lake City: Signature Books,I987), 396.

25 Marinda Nancy Johnson Hyde affidavit, May I, 1869, Joseph F. SmithAffidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah

26 Oliver H. Olney, The Absurdities of Mormonism Portrayed (HancockCounty, lllinois: Privately Printed, 1843), page IO

27 The Benjamin F. Johnson Letter to Elder George S. Gibbs (Dugway,Utah: Kraut Pioneer Press [1968]), 11-12

28 W.W. Phelps, "Letter No. 8," Latter Day Saints· Messenger andAdvocate, I (June 1835), 130.

29 Mary Elizabeth Rollins Lightner, Autobiography, in The UtahGenealogical and Historical Magazine, 17 (July 1926), 197

30 Mary Elizabeth Rollins Lightner, "Address at Brigham YoungUniversity," April 14, 1905, typescript, Special Collections, Harold

B. Lee Library, Provo, Utah.

31 Doctrine and Covenants of the Church of the latter Day Saints(Kirtland, Ohio: F.G. Williams & Co., I 835), 251-52

32 History of the Church of Jesus Christ of latter-day Saints, Period I, v.2, edited by B.H. Roberts (Salt Lake City: Deseret News, 1970), 246

33 History of the Church, Period I, Volume 2, edited by B. H. Roberts(Salt Lake City: Deseret News, 1970), 253.

34 Published in John C. Bennett, The History of the Saints; or, anExpose of Joe Smith and Mormonism (Boston: Leland & Whiting, 1842), 85

35 Latter Day Saints· Messenger and Advocate (Kirtland, Ohio), May1837, page 511.

36 [Editorial,] Elder'sJournal, I (November 1837), 28

37 Kirtland Eider's Quorum Record, 1836-1841, edited by Lyndon W.Cook and Milton V. Backman, Jr. (Provo, Utah: Grandin Book Company, 1985), 35.

38 Oliver Cowdery, Far West, Missouri, to Warren Cowdery, 21 January1838, Ms, Huntington Library, San Marino, California

39 Far West Record: Minutes of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-daySaints, 1830-1844, edited by Donald Q. Cannon and Lyndon

W. Cook (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Company,1983), 167-68

40 [Emmeline B. Wells] "Patty Sessions," Woman's Exponent, 13(November I, 1884), 86

41 Josephine R. Fisher, Signed Statement, Bountiful, Utah, February 24, 1915. It was signed in the presents of Andrew Jenson, Joseph Grant and I. F. Fisher. In the Andrew Jensen papers, LDS Church Archives, SaltLake City, Utah

42 Far West Record: Minutes of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-daySaints, 1830-1844, edited by Donald Q. Cannon and Lyndon

W. Cook (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Company, 1983), 183-85; 206-208 and History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints,Period I, Volume lll, edited by B. H. Roberts (Salt Lake City: TheDeseret Book Company, 1970), 25-26.

43 [Editorial,] Elder 's Journal, I (July 1838), 43

44 Joseph Smith, Liberty, Missouri to Saints in Caldwell County,Missouri, December 16, 1838, published in Personal Writings ofJoseph Smith, compiled and edited by Dean C. Jessee (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 2002), 419-20.

45 F. D. Richards, July 5, 1881, Ogden, Utah to Joseph F. Smith, Salt Lake City, Utah, Joseph F. Smith Collection, LDS Church History Library, Salt Lake City, Utah.

46 The Temple lot Case (Independence, Missouri: Price PublishingCompany, 2003), 358-59

47 "Hymenial," Times and Seasons, 2 (February 15, 1841), 324; andNauvoo Deaths and Marriages, 1839-1845, compiled by Lyndon

W. Cook (Orem, Utah: Grandin Book Company, 1994), 91

48 Ruth Vose Sayers affidavit, May I, 1869, Joseph F. Smith AffidavitBooks, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah.

49 [Emmeline B. Wells] "Ruth Sayers," Woman's Exponent 13 (September15, 1884), 61-62

50 Times and Seasons, 2 (April I, I 841), 374;.and Nauvoo Deaths andMarriages, I 839-1845, compiled by Lyndon W. Cook (Orem, Utah: Grandin Book Company, 1994), 92

51 Zina Diantha Huntington Young affidavit, May I, 1869, Joseph F.Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah; Dimick B. Huntington affidavit, May I, 1869, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah; Fanny Marie Huntington affidavit, May I, 1869, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah and "Plural Marriage," in Andrew Jenson,"Plural Marriage," The Historical Record 6 (May 1887), 230

52 Letter from George A. Smith to Joseph Smith [Ill], Salt Lake City, Utah, October 9, 1869. Historian's Office Letterbook, Church Archives,Salt Lake City, Utah; Joseph B. Noble affidavit, June 6, 1869, Joseph F.Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah; and "Orson Pratt's Testimony," in Andrew Jenson, "Plural Marriage," The Historical Record 6 (May I 887), 230.

53 George A. Smith biography in Andrew Jenson, Latter-day SaintBiographical Encyclopedia, Volume I (Salt Lake City: Andrew JensonHistory Company, 190 I), 39 states that it was July 5, 1841

54 George A. Smith, letter, October 9, 1869 to Joseph Smith Ill,Historian's Office letter book, Church History Library, Salt Lake City, Utah

55 Melissa Schindle affidavit, July 2, 1842, published in "AstoundingDisclosures: Letters from Gen. Bennett," Sangamo Journal


[Springfield, lllinois], IO (July 8, 1842)

56 "The Monnons," in the Times and Seasons, 2 (October 15, 184 I), 580

57 Gary James Bergera, "Identifying the Earliest Mormon Polygamists,1841-44," Dialogue 38 (Fall 2005), 1-74; Zina Diantha HuntingtonYoung affidavit, May I, 1869, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah; Dimick B. Huntington affidavit, May I, 1869, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt LakeCity, Utah; Fanny Marie Huntington affidavit, May I, 1869, Joseph F.Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah and"Plural Marriage," in Andrew Jenson, "Plural Marriage," The Historical Record 6 (May 1887), 230

58 Zina Diantha Huntington Young, "Autobiography," LDS Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah as quote in Gary James Bergera, "John C. Bennett, Joseph Smith, and the Beginnings of Mormon Plural Marriage in Nauvoo," The Jounral of the John Whitmer Historical Association, 25 (2005), 67

59 History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Period I,volume IV (Salt Lake City: The Deseret Book Company, 1970),

467 and Joseph Smith, Journal, 2 January 1842, Church History Library.

60 Gary James Bergera, "Identifying the Earliest Mormon Polygamists, 1841-44," Dialogue 38 (Fall 2005), 1-74 and JosephSmith diary, 10 March 1943 to 14 July 1843, undated page, in Thomas Bullock handwriting.

61 An American Prophet's Record: the Diaries and Journals of Joseph Smith, edited by Scott H. Faulring (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1987), 396.

62 Gary James Bergera, "Identifying the Earliest Monnon Polygamists, 1841-44," Dialogue 38 (Fall 2005), 1-74; Presenda Lathrop Huntington Kimball affidavit, May I, 1869, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah; Dimick B. Huntington affidavit, May I, 1869, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah; and Fanny Marie Huntington affidavit, May I, 1869, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah.

63 "Caution!" in the Times and Seasons, 3 (December 15, 1841), 636

64 "Remarks of President Brigham Young at the Semi-annual Conference," LDS Church Historian's Office, Reports of Speeches, October 8, I 866 (CR 100 317 box 5, folder 20)

65 John Wickliff Rigdon, Affidavit, 28 July 1905, Church HistoryLibrary, Salt Lake City, Utah

66 Gary James Bergera, "Identifying the Earliest Mormon Polygamists,1841-44," Dialogue 38 (Fall 2005), 1-74.

67 Gary James Bergera, "Identifying the Earliest Mormon Polygamists,1841-44," Dialogue 38 (Fall 2005), I-74.

68 Mary Elizabeth Rollins Lightner, "Address at Brigham YoungUniversity," April 14, 1905, typescript, Special Collections, Harold

B. Lee Library, Provo, Utah.

69 "Sarah M. Kimball's Testimony," in Andrew Jenson, "Plural Marriage," The Historical Record 6 (May 1887), 232

70 Gary James Bergera, "Identifying the Earliest Monnon Polygamists,1841-44," Dialogue 38 (Fall 2005), 1-74.

71 Patty Sessions, Letter, June I 867 in the Brigham Young Collection [box 64, fd 10), LDS Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah; Diary (onpage after June 16, 1860), Ms in Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utahand published in Monnon Midwife: the 1846-1888 Diaries of Patty Barlett Sessions, edited by Donna Toland Smart (Logan, Utah: Utah State University Press, 1997), 276

72 Jill Mulvay Derr, Janath Russell Cannon and Maureen Ursenbach Beecher, Women of Covenant: the Story of Relief Society ( Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Company, 1992)

73 Female Relief Society of Nauvoo, Minutes, March 24, 1842, LDSChurch Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah

74 Female Relief Society of Nauvoo, Minutes, March 30, 1842, LDSChurch Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah

75 Gary James Bergera, "Identifying the Earliest Mormon Polygamists, 1841-44," Dialogue 38 (Fall 2005), 1-74 and Joseph Smith diary, 10 March 1943 to 14 July 1843, undated page, in Thomas Bullock handwriting.

76 An American Prophet's Record: the Diaries and Journals of JosephSmith, edited by Scott H. Faulring (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1987), 396.

77 Marinda Nancy Johnson Hyde affidavit, May I, 1869, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah

78 Emily D. P. Young, "Autobiography," Woman's Exponent 14 (August I,1885), 38

79 Female Relief Society of Nauvoo, Minutes, April 4, 1842, LDSChurch Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah

80 The Papers of Joseph Smith, Volume 2, Journal, I832-1842, edited by Dean C. Jessee (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Company, 1992), 376 and History of the Church, volume 4, page 487.

81 The Nauvoo High Council Minute Books of the Church of Jesus Christof latter Day Saints, edited by Fred C. Collier (Hanna, Utah: Collier's Publishing Company, 2005), 50

82 The Papers of Joseph Smith, Volume 2, Journal, 1832-1842, editedby Dean C. Jessee (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Company, 1992), 379.

83 "Notice," Times and Seasons, 3 (July 15, 1842), 830

84 Published in Joseph Smith, "To the Church of Jesus Christ of LatterDay Saints, and to All the Honorable Part of Community," The Wasp, I(June 25, 1842), [2]; see also "Affidavit of Hyrum Smith," Times and Seasons, 3 (August I, 1842), 870-71

85 John C. Bennett, "The Mormons," SangamoJournal [Springfield,Illinois] IO (July 15, 1842)

86 The Papers of Joseph Smith, Volume 2, Journal, 1832-1842, edited by Dean C. Jessee (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Company, 1992), 384.

87 The Papers of Joseph Smith, Volume 2, Journal, 1832-1842, edited by Dean C. Jessee (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Company, 1992), 385.



88 "Chauncy L Higbee," The Nauvoo Neighbor (May 29, 1844), 228.

89 Letter from George A. Smith to Joseph Smith [Ill], Salt Lake City, Utah, October 9, 1869. Historian's Office Letterbook, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah and Lucy Ann D. Young affidavit, JulyI 0, 1869, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah.

90 "Notice," Times and Seasons, 3 (July 15, 1842), 830.

91 Joseph Smith, "To the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, and to All the Honorable Part of Community," The Wasp, I (June 25,I 842), [2]

92 Joseph Smith, "To the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints andto All the Honorable Part of Community," The Times and

Seasons, 3 (July I, 1842), 839-842.

93 John C. Bennett, "The Mormons," Sangamo Journal [Springfield,Illinois], 10 (July 15, 1842)

94 "More Disclosures Relative to the Seductions, Adulteries, &c. &c. ofJoe Smith, the Latter Day Saint," The Morning Chronicle

Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania] , July 28, 1842

95 "Astounding Disclosures: Letters from Gen. Bennett," SangamoJournal[Springfield, Illinois], IO (July 8, 1842)

96 John C. Bennett, "For the Bulletin," American Bulletin (St. Louis,Missouri), I (July16,1842); and John C. Bennett, "Miss Brotherton's Statement," Sangamo Journal (Springfield, Illinois) 10 (July 22, 1842)

97 Joseph Smith, Journal, July 15, 1842, LOS Church Archives, SaltLake City, Utah. John C. Bennet said that the meeting happened July 14 see John C. Bennett, SangamoJournal [Springfield, Illinois] IO (July 22, 1842)) and John C. Bennett, "Orson Pratt," Sangamo Journal [Springfield, Illinois] lO (July 29, 1842). In spite of this report, two days later Brigham Young would write in a letter to Orson's brother Parley Pratt, "Br Orson Pratt is in !rubble in consequence of his wife, his feelings are so rough! up that he dos not know whether his wife is wrong, or whether Josephs testimony and others are wrong and due Lyand he decived for 12 years or not; he is all but crazy about matters." (Brigham Young to Parley Pratt, 17 July 1842)

98 John C. Bennett, "The Mormons," Sangamo Journal [Springfield,Illinois], IO (July 15, I 842)

99 Thomas Smethurst, Statement, 15 July 1842 published in "MissBrotherton's Character Sustained," The Morning Chronicle


[Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania], July 27, 1842

'​"Affidavit of Wm. Law," Times and Seasons, 3 (August I, 1842),872-73

101 "John C. Bennett," Times and Seasons, 3 (August I, 1842), 869

'°'The Wasp, 23 July 1842; and Times and Seasons, I August 1842, 869

103 "Sworn to, and subscribed before me... " Times and Seasons, 3 (AugustI, 1842), 873-74



​"Certificate of Elias and F. M. Higbee," Times and Seasons, 3(August I, 1842), 874

105 John C. Bennett, SangamoJournal 10 (July 22, 1842)


106 "Certificates of William and Henry Marks," Times and Seasons, 3(August I, 1842), 875


'​"Certificates of William and Henry Marks," Times and Seasons, 3(August I, 1842), 875

108 Sarah Ann Kimball affidavit, June 19, 1869, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah and ElizabethAnn Whitney; Sarah Ann Smith Kimball affidavit, August 13, 1869, page 25-28, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah and "Joseph C. Kingsbury's Testimony," in Andrew Jenson, "Plural Marriage," The Historical Record 6 (May I 887), 226.

109 Letter from George A. Smith to Joseph Smith [III], Salt Lake City,Utah, October 9, 1869. Historian's Office Letterbook, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah; Eliza Roxcy Snow Smith affidavit,June 7, 1869, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah and Deseret Weekly News, October 22, 1879

110 Gary James Bergera, "Identifying the Earliest Mormon Polygamists,1841-44," Dialogue 38 (Fall 2005), 1-74.

111 "John C. Bennett," Times and Seasons, 3 (August I, 1842), 868-69

112 "Certificate of Sidney Rigdon," Times and Seasons, 3 (August I, 1842),875

113 Elizabeth Ann Whitney and Sarah Ann Smith Kimball affidavit,August 13, 1869, page 25-28, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah.

114 Joseph Smith, Nauvoo, Illinois to the Whitneys, Nauvoo, 18 April 1842, Joseph Smith Collection, Church History Library, Salt Lake City, Utah and Personal Writings of Joseph Smith, compiled and edited byDean C. Jessee (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 2002), 566-67

115 John C. Bennett, "Letters from Gen. Bennett," SangamoJournal(Springfield, Illinois] 10 (August 19, 1842)

116 Wilford Woodruff, Diary, August 1842. It is on page 187 in Wilford Woodruffs Journal, 1833-1898, typescript, edited by Scott G. Kenney (Midvale, Utah: Signature Books, 1983)

117 Personal Writings of Joseph Smith, compiled and edited by Dean C.Jessee (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 2002),-S-37 50 T'

118 Affidavit of Stephen Markham, August 29, 1842, published in thebroadside Affidavits and Certificates, Disproving the Statements and Affidavits Contained in John C. Bennett's Letters, (Nauvoo, Illinois, 1842)

119 "Inasmuch as the public mind has been... ," Times and Seasons, 3(September I, 1842), 909

120 "Extract ofa Letter from Robert D. Foster," The Wasp, I (September 24, 1842)

::; Sidney Rigdon, "Editor of the Wasp," The Wasp, I (September 3, 1842)[3]


Sangamo Journal, IO (September 23, I 842)

123 Sangamo Journal, IO (September 23, 1842)

124 The Nauvoo High Council Minute Books of the Church of JesusChrist of Latter Day Saints, edited by Fred C. Collier (Hanna, Utah: Collier's Publishing Co., 2005), 65-66.

125 The Nauvoo High Council Minute Books of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, edited by Fred C. Collier (Hanna,

Utah: Collier's Publishing Co., 2005), 66-67.

126 Published in John C. Bennett, The History of the Saints; or, anExpose of Joe Smith and Mormonism (Boston: Leland & Whiting, 1842), 85

127 "On Marriage," Times and Seasons, October I, 1842, page 940.

128 "Deaths," The Wasp, 26 April 1843 [3]

129 "Nauvoo Marriage Record," Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utahas quoted in Nauvoo Deaths and Marriages, 1839-1845, compiled byLyndon W. Cook (Orem, Utah: Grandin Book Company, 1994), 102and "Married," The Wasp (Nauvoo, lllinois), December I 0, I 842, [3]

130 Elvria A. C. Holmes affidavit, August 28, 1869, page 78, Joseph F.Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah.

131 Udney Hay Jacob, An Extract, from a Manuscript Entitled thePeacemaker, or, the Doctrines of the Millennium: Being a Treatiseon Religion and Jurisprudence, or a New System of Religion and Po/iticks [sic] (Nauvoo, lllinois: J. Smith printer, [1842]. This pamphlet defended the practice of polygamy using the Bible. SeeLawrence Foster, "A Little-Known Defense of Polygamy fi-om the Mormon Press in 1842," Dialogue: a Journal of Mormon Thought, 9 (Winter 1974) 21-34

132 Times and Seasons, 4 (December I, 1842), 32

m Speech of Elder Orson Hyde, Delivered Before the High Priest'sQuorum in Nauvoo, April 27, 1845 .. ([Nauvoo, Illinois]: John Taylor, 1845), 27-28

134 William Law affidavit, 17 July I 885, Shullsburg, Wisconsin publishedin Charles A. Shook, The True Origin of Mormon Polygamy

(Cincinnati: The Standard Publishing Co., 1914)

135 Gary James Bergera, "Identifying the Earliest Mormon Polygamists,1841-44," Dialogue 38 (Fall 2005), 1-74.

136 Minutes, 20 January 1843 in the Edyth Romney Typescript Collection, LDS Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah and Wilford Woodruff, diary, January 19, 1843

137 Affidavit, February 16, 1874, published in The Historical Record6(May 1887), 224-26

138 Ruth Vose Sayers affidavit, May I, 1869, Joseph F. Smith AffidavitBooks, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah.

139 "The Mormons, or Latter Day Saints, with their Persecutions," Timesand Seasons, 4 (February I, 1843), I00

140 Gary James Bergera, "Identifying the Earliest Mormon Polygamists,1841-44," Dialogue 38 (Fall 2005), 1-74

141 "Effects of Apostacy [sic]," Times and Seasons, 4 (February I, 1843),89

142 Oliver H.Olney, The Absurdities of Mormonism Portrayed, (HancockCounty, lllinois: Privately Printed, 1843)

143 History of the Church, edited by B. H. Roberts (Salt Lake City:Deseret Book Company, 1970), v. 4, 515

144 Gary James Bergera, "Identifying the Earliest Mormon Polygamists,1841-44," Dialogue 38 (Fall 2005), 1-74

145 Hyde, Mary Ann Price, Autobiography, 1880, page 2-3, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley and An American Prophet's Record: The Diaries and Journals of Joseph Smith, edited by Scott H. Faulring (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1987) ,

396. The journal entry is in the handwriting of Thomas Bullock.

146 "Mothers in Israel: Autobiographical Sketch of Mary Ann Steams Winters," in The Relief Society Magazine, 3 (October 1916), 577-78

147 "Autobiography of Erastus Snow," The Utah Genealogical andHistorical Magazine, 14 (July 1923), 109

148 Emily Dow Partridge Young affidavit, May I, 1869, Joseph F. SmithAffidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah

149 Extract of Emily Dow Young's Autobiography published in Jenson,Andrew, "Plural Marriage," The Historical Record, 6 (May 1887), 240

150 Eliza Maria Partridge Lyman copy of affidavit, July I, 1869, page32, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah

151 Extract of Emily Dow Young's Autobiography published in Jenson, Andrew, "Plural Marriage," The Historical Record, 6 (May 1887), 240

152 Gary James Bergera, "Identifying the Earliest Mormon Polygamists,1841-44," Dialogue 38 (Fall 2005), 1-74

153 Times and Seasons, 4 (March 15, I 843), 143

154 History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, period/, volume 5 (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Company, 1970), 312- 16

155 "Apostle Erastus Snow's Testimony," in Andrew Jenson, "PluralMarriage," The Historical Record 6 (May 1887), 232

156 Letter fi-om George A. Smith to Joseph Smith [Ill], Salt Lake City,Utah, October 9, I 869. Historian's Office Letterbook, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah; Lorenzo Snow affidavit, August 18,1869 Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah and "Apostle Lorenzo Snow's Testimony," in Andrew Jenson, "Plural Marriage," The Historical Record 6 (May 1887), 222

157 "Deaths," The Wasp, 26 April 1843 [3]


158 Oliver H.Olney, The Absurdities of Mormonism Portrayed, (HancockCounty, Illinois: Privately Printed, 1843)

159 The Nauvoo High Council Minute Books of the Church of JesusChrist of latter Day Saints, edited by Fred C. Collier (Hanna, Utah: Collier's Publishing Company, 2005), I 04-105

160 B. F. Johnson affidavit, March 4, 1870, page 4-9, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah

161 My life's Review: Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin Johnson(Provo, Utah: Grandin Book Company, 1997), 85

162 Gary James Bergera, "Identifying the Earliest Mormon Polygamists,1841-44," Dialogue 38 (Fall 2005), 1-74

163 History of the Church, edited by B. H. Roberts (Salt Lake City:Deseret Book Company, 1970), v. 5,348.

164 Gary James Bergera, "Identifying the Earliest Mormon Polygamists, 1841-44," Dialogue 38 (Fall 2005), 1-74; Zina Diantha Huntington Young affidavit, May 1, 1869, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah; Dimick B. Huntington affidavit, May 1, 1869, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah; Fanny Marie Huntington affidavit, MayI, 1869, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah and "Plural Marriage," in Andrew Jenson, "Plural Marriage," The Historical Record 6 (May 1887), 230

165 Gary James Bergera, "Identifying the Earliest Mormon Polygamists, 1841-44," Dialogue 38 (Fall 2005), 1-74; Affidavit, February 16, 1874, published in The Historical Record 6 (May 1887),224-26 and Joseph Smith diary, 10 March 1943 to 14 July 1843, undated page, in Thomas Bullock handwriting.

166 Nauvoo Deaths and Marriages, 1839-1845, Lyndon W. Cook,compiler (Orem, Utah: Grandin Book Company, 1994), 104.

167 Marinda Nancy Johnson Hyde affidavit, May l, 1869, Joseph F. SmithAffidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah

168 An American Prophet's Record: the Diaries and Journals of JosephSmith, edited by Scott H. Faulring (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1987), 396.

169 Erastus Snow, autobiography dictated to his son Franklin R. Snow, in1875 published in The Utah Genealogical and Historical Magazine, 14(1923), 109

170 Letter from George A. Smith to Joseph Smith [III], Salt Lake City,Utah, October 9, 1869, Historian's Office Letterbook, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah; William Clayton Journal, I May 1843;Lucy W. Kimball affidavit, August 9, 1869, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah; Affidavit, February 16, 1874, published in The Historical Record 6 (May 1887), 224-26;Joseph Smith diary, 10 March 1843 to 14 July 1843, undated page, in Thomas Bullock handwriting, The Temple Lot Case (Independence, Missouri: Price Publishing Company, 2003) 371; and "William Clayton's Testimony," in Andrew Jenson, "Plural Marriage," The Historical Record 6 (May 1887), 225.

171 Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, volume I, page 67, Church HistoryLibrary, Salt Lake City, Utah

172 "Lucy W. Kimball's Testimony," in Andrew Jenson, "PluralMarriage," The Historical Record6 (May 1887), 229-30

173 The Temple Lot Case (Independence, Missouri: Price PublishingCompany, 2003), 371

174Emily D. P. Young, "Autobiography," Women's Exponent 14(August I, 1885), 38; letter from George A. Smith to Joseph Smith [Ill], Salt Lake City, Utah, October 9, 1869. Historian's Office Letterbook, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah; Eliza Maria Partridge Lyman copy of affidavit, July I, 1869, page 33, Joseph F.Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah; "Emily Dow Partridge's Testimony," in Andrew Jenson, "Plural Marriage," The Historical Record 6 (May 1887), 223; and The Temple lot Case (Independence, Missouri: Price Publishing Company, 2003), 364

175 "Eliza M. Partridge's Affidavit," published in Andrew Jensen, "PluralMarriage," The Historical Record, 6 (May 1887), 223.

176 "Emily Dow Partridge's Affidavit," published in Andrew Jensen,"Plural Marriage," The Historical Record, 6 (May 1887), 223.

177 Letter from George A. Smith to Joseph Smith [Ill], Salt Lake City, Utah, October 9, 1869. Historian's Office Letterbook, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah

178 John Smith, "To the Public," Times and Seasons, 4 (May 15, 1843),20 I

179 Joseph H. Jackson, A Narrative of the Adventures and Experience ofJoseph H. Jack.son in Nauvoo, Disclosing the Depths of Mormon Villainy (Warsaw, Illinois, August 1844)

180 "Benjamin F. Johnson's Testimony," in Andrew Jenson, "Plural Marriage," The Historical Record 6 (May 1887), 221

181 Joseph Smith diary, May 28, 1843 as quoted in Joseph Smith'sQuorum of the Anointed, 1842-1845: a Documentary History,

edited by Devery S. Anderson and Gary James Bergera (Salt Lake City:Signature Books, 2005), 19.

182 "John Benbow's Affidavit," in Andrew Jenson, "Plural Marriage," TheHistorical Record6 (May 1887), 222-23

183 Elvria A. C. Holmes affidavit, August 28, 1869, page 78, Joseph F.Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah.

184 Gary James Bergera, "Identifying the Earliest Mormon Polygamists,1841-44," Dialogue 38 (Fall 2005), 1-74

185 Letter from George A. Smith to Joseph Smith [IJI], Salt Lake City, Utah, October 9, 1869. Historian's Office Letterbook, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah and Rhoda Richards affidavit, May I, 1869, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah.

186 Joseph Smith, Journal, June 12, 1843, Church Archives, Salt LakeCity Utah.

187 Edward W. Tullidge, The Women o/Mormondom (New York, 1877),4'19-22



An Intimate Chronicle: the Journals of William Clayton, edited by George D. Smith (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1991), I08 Letter from GeorgeA. Smith to Joseph Smith [Ill], Salt Lake City, Utah, October 9, 1869.Historian's Office Letterbook, Church


Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah and Desdemona Fullmer Smithaffidavit, June 17, 1869, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah.


190 Gary James Bergera, "Identifying the Earliest Mormon Polygamists,1841-44," Dialogue 38 (Fall 2005), I-74

191 Letter from George A. Smith to Joseph Smith [Ill], Salt Lake City,Utah, October 9, 1869. Historian's Office Letterbook, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah; David Fullmer affidavit, June 15,1869, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah and "William Clayton's Testimony, in Andrew Jenson,"Plural Marriage," The Historical Record 6 (May 1887), 225-26. 192Joseph C. Kingsbury affidavit, March 7, 1870, page 18, Joseph F. Smith, Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah; "William Clayton's Testimony, in Andrew Jenson, "Plural Marriage," The Historical Record 6 (May 1887), 225-26 and "Joseph C. Kingsbury's Testimony," in Andrew Jenson, "Plural Marriage," The Historical Record 6 (May 1887), 226

193 "William Clayton's Testimony, in Andrew Jenson, "Plural Marriage,"The Historical Record 6 (May 1887), 226

194 Hyde, Mary Ann Price, Autobiography, 1880, page 2-3, Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley and An American Prophet'sRecord: The Diaries and Journals of Joseph Smith, edited by Scott H.Faulring (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1987),

396. The entry is in the handwriting of Thomas Bullock.

195 "William Clayton's Testimony, in Andrew Jenson, "Plural Marriage,"The Historical Record 6 (May 1887), 225-26

196 "Howard Coray Testimony," in Andrew Jenson. "Plural Marriage,"The Historical Record 6 (May 1887), 228-29

197 Gary James Bergera, "Identifying the Earliest Mormon Polygamists,1841-44," Dialogue 38 (Fall 2005), 1-74; letter from George

A. Smith to Joseph Smith [lIJ], Salt Lake City, Utah, October 9, 1869.Historian's Office Letterbook, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah;and Elizabeth B. Pratt affidavit, August 2 , 1869, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah. 198 Letter from George A. Smith to Joseph Smith [Ill], Salt Lake City, Utah, October 9, 1869. Historian's Office Letterbook, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah

199 Gary James Bergera, "Identifying the Earliest Mormon Polygamists,1841-44," Dialogue 38 (Fall 2005), 1-74

200 Gary James Bergera, "Identifying the Earliest Mormon Polygamists, 1841-44," Dialogue 38 (Fall 2005), 1-74 and Catherine Phillps Smith affidavit, January 28, 1903, Joseph F. Smith, Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah

201 Letter from George A. Smith to Joseph Smith [Ill], Salt Lake City,Utah, October 9, 1869. Historian's Office Letterbook, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah and Thomas Grover affidavit, July 6, 1869, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah

202 Letter from George A. Smith to Joseph Smith [Ill], Salt Lake City,Utah, October 9, 1869. Historian's Office Letterbook, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah and Thomas Grover affidavit, July 6, 1869, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah

203 Gary James Bergera, "Identifying the Earliest Mormon Polygamists,1841-44," Dialogue 38 (Fall 2005), 1-74; letter from George

A. Smith to Joseph Smith [Ill], Salt Lake City, Utah, October 9,1869, Historian's Office Letterbook, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah; and Mercy R. Thompson affidavit, June 19, 1869, Joseph F. Smith, Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah,and United States, Court of Appeals (81h Circuit), Testimony in Temple Lot Suit, part 2, page 243

204 "Mercy B. Thompson's Testimony," in Andrew Jenson, "PluralMarriage," The Historical Record 6 (May 1887), 229

205 An Intimate Chronicle: the Journals of William Clayton, edited byGeorge D. Smith (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1991), l 15

206 Letter from George A. Smith to Joseph Smith [Ill], Salt Lake City, Utah, October 9, 1869. Historian's Office Letterbook, Church Archives,Salt Lake City, Utah; David Fullmer affidavit, June 15, 1869, Joseph F.Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah; and Thomas Grover affidavit, July 6, 1869, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah

207 "Thomas Grover's Testimony," in Andrew Jenson, "Plural Marriage," The Historical Record 6 (May 1887), 226-27 see also copy of Thomas Grover affidavit, June 4, 1883 attached to a letter from L.0. Littlefield, Logan [Utah] June 7, 1883 to Joseph F. Smith, Joseph F. Smith Collection, LDS Church History Library, Salt Lake City, Utah

208 "David Fullmer's Testimony," in Andrew Jenson, "Plural Marriage," The Historical Record 6 (May 1887), 227 and Nauvoo Expositor, June 7, 1844, v. 1, no. 1 [page 2]

209 "Leonard Soby's Letter," in Andrew Jenson, "Plural Marriage," TheHistorical Record 6 (May 1887), 228

210 Gary James Bergera, "Identifying the Earliest Mormon Polygamists,1841-44," Dialogue 38 (Fall 2005), 1-74

211 William Clayton journal entry copied in Joseph F. Smith AffidavitBooks, v. 2, page 68, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah

212 An Intimate Chronicle: the Journals of William Clayton, edited byGeorge D. Smith (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1991), 117

213 History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, period 1, volume V, ed., B. H. Roberts, (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Company, 1970), 541

214 Letter from George A. Smith to Joseph Smith [Ill], Salt Lake City,Utah, October 9, 1869. Historian's Office Letterbook, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah

215 George A. Smith, letter, October 9, 1869 to Joseph Smith lll,Historian's Office letter book, Church History Library, Salt Lake City, Utah

216 The Temple Lot Case (Independence, Missouri: Price PublishingCompany, 2003), 380-381

217 The Temple Lot Case (Independence, Missouri: Price PublishingCompany, 2003), 383

218 Gary James Bergera, "Identifying the Earliest Mormon Polygamists,1841-44," Dialogue 38 (Fall 2005), 1-74

219 An Intimate Chronicle: the Journals of William Clayton, edited byGeorge D. Smith (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1991), 120


220 An Intimate Chronicle: the Journals of William Clayton, edited byGeorge D. Smith (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 199 J), 120

221 Letter from George A. Smith to Joseph Smith (III], Salt Lake City, Utah, October 9, 1869. Historian's Office Letterbook, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah and Melissa Lott Willes affidavit, May20, 1869, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah.

222 The Temple Lot Case (Independence, Missouri: Price Publishing,2003), 314

223 "Bishop S.A. Woolley's Testimony,"," in Andrew Jenson, "PluralMarriage," The Historical Record, 6 (May 1887), 231-32

224 "Minutes of a Special Conference," Times and Seasons, 4 (September15, 1843), 329-30

225 An Intimate Chronicle: the Journals of William Clayton, edited byGeorge D. Smith (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1991), 122

226 "Benjamin F. Johnson's Testimony," in Andrew Jenson, "PluralMarriage," The Historical Record, 6 (May 1887), 222

227 An American Prophet's Record: the Diaries and Journals of JosephSmith, edited by Scott H. Faulring (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1987) 396.

228 "Benjamin F. Johnson's Testimony," in Andrew Jenson, "PluralMarriage," The Historical Record, 6 (May 1887), 222

229 Letter from George A. Smith to Joseph Smith [III], Salt Lake City,Utah, October 9, 1869. Historian's Office Letterbook, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah and Augusta Adams Young affidavit, July 12, 1869, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah.

230 Gary James Bergem, "Identifying the Earliest Mormon Polygamists, 1841-44," Dialogue 38 (Fall 2005), 1-74 and Augusta Adams Young affidavit, July 12, 1869, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, volume 2,page 50, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah.

231 Gary James Bergera, "Identifying the Earliest Mormon Polygamists, 1841-44," Dialogue 38 (Fall 2005), 1-74 and HarrietCook Young affidavit, March 4, 1870, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, volume 2, page 12, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah.

232 An American Prophet's Record: the Diaries and Journals of JosephSmith, edited by Scott H. Faulring (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1987) 396.

233 Wilford Woodruff, Diary, November 11, 1843 as published in WilfordWoodruff's Journal, 1833-1898, volume 2, edited by Scott

G. Kenny (Midvale, Utah: Signature Books, 1983), 326-27

234 Affidavit of Adeline Brooks Andrus Benson, 5 September 1869 inthe Joseph F. Smith plural marriage affidavit collection, Church HistoryLibrary, Salt Lake City, Utah

235 An American Prophet's Record: the Diaries and Journals of JosephSmith, edited by Scott H. Faulring (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1987) 396.

236 An Intimate Chronicle: the Journals of William Clayton, edited byGeorge D. Smith (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1991), 123

237 Nauvoo High Council Minutes, November 25, 1843, page 21. ;and Bergem, Gary James, "'Illicit Intercourse,' Plural Marriage, and the Nauvoo Stake High Council, 1840-1844, The John Whitmer Historical Association Journal 23 (2003):59-90.

238 Wilford Woodruff, Diary, November 25, 1843 as published in Wilford Woodruff's Journal, !833-1898, volume 2, edited by Scott

G. Kenny (Midvale, Utah: Signature Books, 1983), 328

239 Amos Fielding affidavit, 24 August 1869, Joseph F. Smith AffidavitBooks, Church History Library, Salt Lake City, Utah

240 Gary James Bergem, "Identifying the Earliest Mormon Polygamists,1841-44," Dialogue 38 (Fall 2005), 1-74

241 United States. Court of Appeals (8thCircuit) Testimony. Microfilm in the Church History Library, Salt Lake City, Utah., page 291- 92

242 Wilford Woodruff, diary, December 23, 1843, as published in WilfordWoodruff's Journal, !833-1898, volume 2, edited by Scott

G. Kenny (Midvale, Utah: Signature Books, 1983), 332

243 Gary James Bergem, "Identifying the Earliest Mormon Polygamists,1841-44," Dialogue 38 (Fall 2005), 1-74

244 Letter from George A. Smith to Joseph Smith (Ill], Salt Lake City, Utah, October 9, 1869. Historian's Office Letterbook, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah

245 Gary James Bergera, "Identifying the Earliest Mormon Polygamists,1841-44," Dialogue 38 (Fall 2005), 1-74

246 Times and Seasons, 5 (February I, 1844), 423

247 James B. Allen, No Toil nor Labor Fear: the Story of WilliamClayton (Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University Press), 191 and AnIntimate Chronicle: the Journals of William Clayton, edited byGeorge D. Smith (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1991), 126. 248Gary James Bergem, "Identifying the Earliest Mormon Polygamists, 1841-44," Dialogue 38 (Fall 2005), 1-74

249 History of the Church of Jesus Christ of latter-day Saints, Period I(Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Company, 1969), 6:225

250 Gary James Bergem, "Identifying the Earliest Mormon Polygamists,1841-44," Dialogue 38 (Fall 2005), 1-74

251 "Apostle Erastus Snow's Testimony," in Andrew Jenson, "PluralMarriage," The Historical Record6 (May 1887), 232

252 Gary James Bergera, "Identifying the Earliest Mormon Polygamists,1841-44," Dialogue 38 (Fall 2005), 1-74

253 "Virtue Will Triumph," Nauvoo Neighbor I (March 20, 1844) (187]

254 History of the Church, v. VJ (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Company, 1969), 248 and "Virtue Will Triumph," Nauvoo Neighbor 1 (March 20, 1844) (187]

::: Amos Fielding affidavit, 24 August 1869, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, Church History Library, Salt Lake City, Utah.

Times and Seasons 5 (March 15, 1844), 474.

257 "Virtue Will Triumph," Nauvoo Neighbor 1 (March 20, 1844) [187]

258 History of the Church, v. VI (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Company, 1969), 267 and "Virtue Will Triumph," Nauvoo Neighbor I (March 20, 1844)(187]



259 "Virtue Will Triumph," Nauvoo Neighbor 1 (March 20, 1844) [187]

260 History a/the Church (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Company, 1969) v. 6,271

261 History of the Church (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Company, 1969)v. 6,279

262 Andrew Karl Larson, "The Wives of Erastus Snow: Minerva WhiteSnow," in Erastus Snow: the Life of a Missionary and Pioneer for the Early Mormon Church (Salt Lake City: University of Utah press, 1971), 749

263 Artimesia Beaman Snow's article in the Woman's Exponent, taken froman address to the ladies of St. George and recorded in the

St. George Relief Society records as quoted in Andrew Karl Larson,"The Wives of Erastus Snow: Artimesia Beman Snow," in Erastus Snow: the Life of a Missionary and Pioneer for the Early MormonChurch (Salt Lake City: University of Utah press, 1971), 747

264 Minutes, 8 April 1844 in the General Church Minutes series, LDSChurch Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah

265 An Intimate Chronicle: the Journals of William Clayton, edited byGeorge D. Smith (Salt Lake City: Signature, 1991), 128

266 Nauvoo High Council Minutes, April 13, 1844; and Bergera, GaryJames, "'Illicit Intercourse,' Plural Marriage, and the Nauvoo

Stake High Council, 1840-1844," The John Whitmer HistoricalAssociation Journal 23 (2003):59-90.

267 History of the Church, edited by B. H. Roberts (Salt Lake City:Deseret Book Company, 1970), v. 6,338.

268 Gary James Bergera, "Identifying the Earliest Mormon Polygamists,1841-44," Dialogue 38 (Fall 2005), 1-74; Zina Diantha HuntingtonYoung affidavit, May I, 1869, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah; Dimick B. Huntington affidavit, May 1,1869, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt LakeCity, Utah; Fanny Marie Huntington affidavit, May 1, 1869, Joseph F.Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah and"Plural Marriage," in Andrew Jenson, "Plural Marriage," The Historical Record 6 (May 1887), 230

269 Nauvoo Expositor, June 7, 1844, v. I, no. I [page 2]

270 An Intimate Chronicle: the Journals of William Clayton, edited byGeorge D. Smith (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1991), 129

271 A History of !llinois from its Commencement as a State in 1818 to I847, volume II by Gov. Thomas Ford, edited by Milo Milton Quaife (Chicago: The Lakeside Press, 1946), 160

272 "Robert D. Foster, Wilson Law... " Times and Seasons, 5 (April 15,1844), 511

273 Gary James Bergera, "Identifying the Earliest Mormon Polygamists,1841-44," Dialogue 38 (Fall 2005), 1-74

274 Gary James Bergera, "Identifying the Earliest Mormon Polygamists,1841-44," Dialogue 38 (Fall 2005), 1-74; letter from George

A. Smith to Joseph Smith [III], Salt Lake City, Utah, October 9, 1869, Historian's Office Letterbook, Church Archives, Salt Lake City,Utah; and affidavit of Adeline Brooks Andrus Benson, 5 September 1869 in the Joseph F. Smith plural marriage affidavit collection, Church History Library, Salt Lake City, Utah

275 Charles C. Rich affidavit, July 12, 1869, Joseph F. Smith AffidavitBooks, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah

276 Nauvoo Expositor, June 7, 1844, v. I, no. I [page 2]

277 Nauvoo Expositor, June 7, 1844, v. I, no. I [page 2]

278 Nauvoo Expositor, June 7, 1844, v. I, no. I [page 2]

279 Gary James Bergera, "Identifying the Earliest Mormon Polygamists,1841-44," Dialogue 38 (Fall 2005), 1-74 and Clara Decker Young affidavit, March 4, 1870, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, volume 2,page 16, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah

280 George A. Smith, letter, October 9, 1869 to Joseph Smith III,Historian's Office letter book, Church History Library, Salt Lake City, Utah

281 Published in Lyndon W. Cook, William Law: Biographical Essay,Nauvoo Diary, Correspondence, Interview (Orem, Utah: Grandin Book Company, 1994), 53

282 An Intimate Chronicle: the Journals a/William Clayton, edited byGeorge D. Smith (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1991), 127

283 "A Chronology of the Life of Joseph Smith," BYU Studies, 46 (2007),166

284 "Address of the Prophet-His Testimony Against the Dissenters at Nauvoo," in History of the Church (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Company, 1969), 410-11 .

285 "Chauncy L Higbee," The Nauvoo Neighbor (May 29, 1844), 228.

286 Nauvoo Expositor, June 7, 1844, v. I, no. I [page 3]

287 Nauvoo Expositor, June 7, 1844, v. I, no. I

288 Nauvoo Expositor, June 7, 1844, v. I, no. I [page 3]

289 "History of Joseph Smith," The Latter-Day Saints' Millennial Star, 23(November 23, 1861), 754

290 "History of Joseph Smith," The latter-Day Saints'Millennial Star, 23 (November 30, 1861), 769 "'."History of Joseph Smith," The latter-Day Saints'Millennial Star, 23 (November 23, 1861), 752

::; An Intimate Chronicle: the Journals a/William Clayton, edited byGeorge D. Smith (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1991), 132 Joseph Smith, "Proclamation," The Prophet, I (July 13, 1844) [2]

294 An Intimate Chronicle: the Journals a/William Clayton, edited byGeorge D. Smith (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1991), 132- 33

295 EXTRA, Nauvoo Neighbor, June 17, 1844

296 "Section 135," Doctrine and Covenants (Salt Lake City: Church ofJesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1981), 280-82



297 Jackson, Joseph H., A Narrative of the Adventures and Experience of Joseph H. Jackson in Nauvoo, Disclosing the Depths of Mormon Villainy (Warsaw, Illinois, August, 1844)

298 Jackson, Joseph H., A Narrative of the Adventures and Experience ofJoseph H. Jackson in Nauvoo, Disclosing the Depths of

Mormon Villainy (Warsaw, Illinois, August, 1844), 25

299 Jackson, Joseph H., A Narrative of the Adventures and Experienceof Joseph H. Jackson in Nauvoo, Disclosing the Depths of Mormon Villainy (Warsaw, Illinois, August, 1844), 27-28

300 The Temple Lot Case (Independence, Missouri: Price PublishingCompany, 2003), 385

301 The Temple lot Case (Independence, Missouri: Price PublishingCompany, 2003), 364

302 My life's Reviw: Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin Johnson (Provo,Utah: Grandin Book Company, 1997), 92

303 "The Apostles and Apostates," Times and Seasons, November 15,1844, page 715

304 Oliver H. Olney, Spiritual Wifery at Nauvoo Exposed, also A TrueAccount of Transactions in and about Nauvoo (St. Louis,

Missouri: Privately Printed, I 845)

305 Oliver H. Olney, Spiritual Wifery at Nauvoo Exposed, also A TrueAccount of Transactions in and about Nauvoo (St. Louis, Missouri: Privately Printed, 1845), 7.

306 Boston Investigator, February 3, 1845.

307 Minutes, 27 February 1845, in the handwriting of Thomas Bullock in General Minutes (CR I 00/318, box I, folder 29), Church History Library, Salt Lake City, Utah

308 P. P. Pratt, "This Number Closes the First Volume of the 'Prophet,"' TheProphet, I (May 24, 1845) [2].

309 The Temple lot Case (Independence, Missouri: Price PublishingCompany, 2003), 455

310 Brigham Young letter, IO August 1845 to William Smith, retainedcopy, Brigham Young papers, LDS Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah.

311 An Intimate Chronicle: the Journals of William Clayton, edited byGeorge D. Smith (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1991), 178

312 The Temple Lot Case (Independence, Missouri: Price PublishingCompany, 2003), 462-73

313 William Clayton journal, October 8, 1845, typescript, page 46

314 "Lovina Walker's Certificate," in Andrew Jenson, "Plural Marriage,"The Historical Record6 (May 1887), 223


Nauvoo Sealings, Adoptions, and Anointings: a Comprehensive Registerof Persons Receiving LDS Temple Ordinances, I 84/-

1846, compiled by Lisle G. Brown (Salt Lake City: the Smith-PettitFoundation, 2006), 281


Sarah Ann Kimball affidavit, June 19, 1869, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah and Elizabeth Ann Whitney; Sarah Ann Smith Kimball affidavit, August 13, 1869, page 25-28, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, SaltLake City, Utah and "Joseph C. Kingsbury's Testimony," in Andrew Jenson, "Plural Marriage," The Historical Record

6 (May 1887), 226.


Nauvoo Seatings, Adoptions, and Anointings: a Comprehensive Registerof Persons Receiving LDS Temple Ordinances, I 841-

1846, compiled by Lisle G. Brown (Salt Lake City: the Smith-PettitFoundation, 2006), 281


Eliza Maria Partridge Lyman copy of affidavit, July I, 1869, page32, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah


Nauvoo Seatings, Adoptions, and Anointings: a Comprehensive Registerof Persons Receiving LDS Temple Ordinances, 1841-

1846, compiled by Lisle G. Brown (Salt Lake City: the Smith-PettitFoundation, 2006), 281


Letter from George A. Smith to Joseph Smith [Ill], Salt Lake City, Utah, October 9, 1869. Historian's Office Letterbook, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah; Joseph B. Noble affidavit, June 6, 1869, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake

City, Utah; and "Orson Pratt's Testimony," in Andrew Jenson, "PluralMarriage," The Historical Record 6 (May 1887), 230.


Nauvoo Seatings, Adoptions, and Anointings: a Comprehensive Registerof Persons Receiving LDS Temple Ordinances, 1841-

/846, compiled by Lisle G. Brown (Salt Lake City: the Smith-PettitFoundation, 2006), 281





Emily Dow Partridge Young affidavit, May I, 1869, Joseph F. SmithAffidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah

Nauvoo Seatings, Adoptions, and Anointing'>: a Comprehensive Registerof Persons Receiving LDS Temple Ordinances, 184/-


1846, compiled by Lisle G. Brown (Salt Lake City: the Smith-PettitFoundation, 2006), 282


Nauvoo Seatings, Adoptions, and Anointings: a ComprehensiveRegister of Persons Receiving LDS Temple Ordinances, I 841- 1846,compiled by Lisle G. Brown (Salt Lake City: the Smith-Pettit Foundation, 2006), 282


Nauvoo Seatings, Adoptions, and Anointings: a Comprehensive Registerof Persons Receiving lDS Temple Ordinances, 184/-

1846, compiled by Lisle G. Brown (Salt Lake City: the Smith-PettitFoundation, 2006), 282


Letter from George A. Smith to Joseph Smith [III], Salt Lake City,Utah, October 9, 1869, Historian's Office Letterbook, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah; William Clayton Journal, I May 1843;Lucy W. Kimball affidavit, August 9, 1869, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah; Affidavit, February 16, 1874, published in The Historical Record 6 (May 1887), 224-26;Joseph Smith diary, IO March 1843 to 14 July I 843, undated page, inThomas Bullock handwriting, The Temple lot Case (Independence, Missouri: Price Publishing Company, 2003) 371; and "William Clayton's Testimony," in Andrew Jenson, "Plural Marriage," The Historical Record 6 (May 1887), 225.


Nauvoo Seatings, Adoptions, and Anointings: a Comprehensive Registerof Persons Receiving LDS Temple Ordinances, 184/-

1846, compiled by Lisle G. Brown (Salt Lake City: the Smith-PettitFoundation, 2006), 282



328 "Relief Society Counselor: Sarah Maryetta Kingsley (HoweCleveland Smith Smith)," in Todd Compton, In Sacred Loneliness:the Plural Wives of Joseph Smith (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 271-87

329 Nauvoo Seatings, Adoptions, and Anointings: a Comprehensive Registerof Persons Receiving LDS Temple Ordinances, 1841-

1846, compiled by Lisle G. Brown (Salt Lake City: the Smith-PettitFoundation, 2006), 282

330 Nauvoo Seatings, Adoptions, and Anointings: a Comprehensive Register of Persons Receiving LDS Temple Ordinances, 1841- 1846,compiled by Lisle G. Brown (Salt Lake City: the Smith-Pettit Foundation, 2006), 282

331 Nauvoo Seatings, Adoptions, and Anointings: a Comprehensive Register of Persons Receiving LDS Temple Ordinances, 184/-

1846, compiled by Lisle G. Brown (Salt Lake City: the Smith-PettitFoundation, 2006), 282

332 Nauvoo Sealings, Adoptions, and Anointings: a ComprehensiveRegister f Persons Receiving LDS Temple Ordinances, 1841-

1846, compiled by Lisle G. Brown (Salt Lake City: the Smith-PettitFoundation, 2006), 282

333 Nauvoo Sealings, Adoptions, and Anointings: a ComprehensiveRegister of Persons Receiving LDS Temple Ordinances, 1841- 1846,compiled by Lisle G. Brown (Salt Lake City: the Smith-Pettit Foundation, 2006), 282

334 Mary Elizabeth Rollins Lightner, "Address at Brigham YoungUniversity," April 14, 1905, typescript, Special Collections, Harold

B. Lee Library, Provo, Utah.

335 Nauvoo Seatings, Adoptions, and Anointings: a ComprehensiveRegister of Persons Receiving LDS Temple Ordinances, 1841- 1846,compiled by Lisle G. Brown (Salt Lake City: the Smith-Pettit Foundation, 2006), 282

336 Nauvoo Sealings, Adoptions, and Anointings: a Comprehensive Register of Persons Receiving LDS Temple Ordinances, 1841- 1846,compiled by Lisle G. Brown (Salt Lake City: the Smith-Pettit Foundation, 2006), 282

337 Nauvoo Sea/ings, Adoptions, and Anointings: a ComprehensiveRegister of Persons Receiving LDS Temple Ordinances, 1841- 1846,compiled by Lisle G. Brown (Salt Lake City: the Smith-Pettit Foundation, 2006), 282

338 Nauvoo Seatings, Adoptions, and Anointings: a Comprehensive Register of Persons Receiving LDS Temple Ordinances, 1841- 1846,compiled by Lisle G. Brown (Salt Lake City: the Smith-Pettit Foundation, 2006), 282

339 Nauvoo Seatings, Adoptions, and Anointings: a Comprehensive Register of Persons Receiving LDS Temple Ordinances, 1841- 1846,compiled by Lisle G. Brown (Salt Lake City: the Smith-PettitFoundation, 2006), 283

340 "Autobiography of Emily D. P. Young," Woman's Exponent, 14 (AugustI, 1885), 38

341 Nauvoo Sealings, Adoptions, and Anointings: a ComprehensiveRegister of Persons Receiving LDS Temple Ordinances, 1841- 1846,compiled by Lisle G. Brown (Salt Lake City: the Smith-Pettit Foundation, 2006), 283

342 Letter from George A. Smith to Joseph Smith [Ill], Salt Lake City, Utah, October 9, 1869. Historian's Office Letterbook, Church

Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah and Desdemona Fullmer Smith affidavit, lune 17, 1869, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah.

343 Nauvoo Seatings, Adoptions, and Anointings: a ComprehensiveRegister of Persons Receiving LDS Temple Ordinances, 1841- 1846,compiled by Lisle G. Brown (Salt Lake City: the Smith-PettitFoundation, 2006), 283

344 Gary James Bergera, "Identifying the Earliest Mormon Polygamists,1841-44," Dialogue 38 (Fall 2005), 1-74

345 Nauvoo Seatings, Adoptions, and Anointings: a ComprehensiveRegister of Persons Receiving LDS Temple Ordinances, 1841-

1846, compiled by Lisle G. Brown (Salt Lake City: the Smith-PettitFoundation, 2006), 283

346 Gary James Bergera, "Identifying the Earliest Mormon Polygamists,1841-44," Dialogue 38 (Fall 2005), 1-74.

347 Nauvoo Sealings, Adoptions, and Anointings: a Comprehensive Register of Persons Receiving LDS Temple Ordinances, 1841- 1846,compiled by Lisle G. Brown (Salt Lake City: the Smith-Pettit Foundation, 2006), 283

348 "Autobiography of Emily D. P. Young," Woman's Exponent, 14 (AugustI, 1885), 38

349 Nauvoo Seatings, Adoptions, and Anointings: a ComprehensiveRegister of Persons Receiving LDS Temple Ordinances, 1841- 1846,compiled by Lisle G. Brown (Salt Lake City: the Smith-PettitFoundation, 2006), 283

350 Nauvoo Sealings, Adoptions, and Anointings: a ComprehensiveRegister of Persons Receiving LDS Temple Ordinances, 1841- 1846,compiled by Lisle G. Brown (Salt Lake City: the Smith-Pettit Foundation, 2006), 284

351 Nauvoo Seatings, Adoptions, and Anointings: a ComprehensiveRegister of Persons Receiving LDS Temple Ordinances, 1841- 1846,compiled by Lisle G. Brown (Salt Lake City: the Smith-PettitFoundation, 2006), 284

352 Nauvoo Seatings, Adoptions, and Anointings: a Comprehensive Register of Persons Receiving LDS Temple Ordinances, 1841- 1846,compiled by Lisle G. Brown (Salt Lake City: the Smith-PettitFoundation, 2006), 284

353 Letter from George A. Smith to Joseph Smith [III], Salt Lake City, Utah, October 9, 1869. Historian's Office Letterbook, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah and Rhoda Richards affidavit, May I,1869, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah

354 Nauvoo Sealings, Adoptions, and Anointings: a ComprehensiveRegister of Persons Receiving LDS Temple Ordinances, 1841-

1846, compiled by Lisle G. Brown (Salt Lake City: the Smith-PettitFoundation, 2006), 284


355 Gary James Bergera, "Identifying the Earliest Mormon Polygamists,1841-44," Dialogue 38 (Fall 2005), 1-74; Zina Diantha HuntingtonYoung affidavit, May I, I 869, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, ChurchArchives, Salt Lake City, Utah; Dimick B. Huntington affidavit, May l,1869, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City,Utah; Fanny Marie Huntington affidavit, May I, 1869, Joseph F. SmithAffidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah and "PluralMarriage," in Andrew Jenson, "Plural Marriage," The Historical Record 6 (May 1887), 230

356 Nauvoo Sealings, Adoptions, and Anointings: a ComprehensiveRegister of Persons Receiving LDS Temple Ordinances, 1841- 1846,compiled by Lisle G. Brown (Salt Lake City: the Smith-PettitFoundation, 2006), 284

357 Nauvoo Sealings, Adoptions, and Anointings: a ComprehensiveRegister of Persons Receiving LDS Temple Ordinances, 1841-

1846, compiled by Lisle G. Brown (Salt Lake City: the Smith-PettitFoundation, 2006), 284

358 Letter from George A. Smith to Joseph Smith [Ill], Salt Lake City, Utah, October 9, 1869. Historian's Office Letterbook, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah and Eliza Roxcy Snow Smith affidavit, June 7, 1869, Joseph F. Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah

359 Nauvoo Sealings, Adoptions, and Anointings: a ComprehensiveRegister of Persons Receiving LDS Temple Ordinances, 1841-

1846, compiled by Lisle G. Brown (Salt Lake City: the Smith-PettitFoundation, 2006), 284

360 Nauvoo Sealings, Adoptions, and Anointings: a ComprehensiveRegister of Persons Receiving LDS Temple Ordinances, 1841- 1846,compiled by Lisle G. Brown (Salt Lake City: the Smith-Pettit Foundation, 2006), 284

361 Elvria A. C. Holmes affidavit, August 28, 1869, page 78, Joseph F.Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah

362 Nauvoo Deaths and Marriages, 1839-1845, complied by Lyndon W.Cook (Orem, Utah: Grandin Book Company, 1994), 102.

363 Nauvoo Seatings, Adoptions, and Anointings: a ComprehensiveRegister of Persons Receiving LDS Temple Ordinances, I 841-

1846, compiled by Lisle G. Brown (Salt Lake City: the Smith-PettitFoundation, 2006), 285

364 "Polygamy, Melancholy, Possession: Helen Mar Kimball (Smith Whitney)" In Sacred Loneliness: the Plural Wives of Joseph Smith(Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 1997), 486-534 and A Woman's View: Helen Mar Whitney's Reminiscences of Early Church History,edited by Jeni Broberg Holzapfel and Richard Neitzel Holzapfel(Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University Religious Studies Center, 1997)

365 Letter from William E. McLellin to John L. Traughber published inThe William E. McLellin, 1854-1880, ed. by Stan Larsen and

Samuel J. Passey (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 2007), 500

366 Letter from William E. McLellin to John L Traugher, published in TheWilliam E. McLellin, 1854-1880, edited by Stan Larsen and Samuel J. Passey (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 2007) 501

367 Personal Writings of Joseph Smith, compiled and edited by Dean C.Jessee (Salt Lake City: Deseret Book, 2002), 537

368 Letter from William E. McLellin to Joseph Smith Ill, January 10,1861 published in The William E. McLellin Papers, 1854-1880, ed. Stan Larson and Samuel J Passey (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 2007), 440-44.

369 W.W. Phelps to Brigham Young, 12 August 1861, RevelationsCollection, LDS Church History Library, Salt Lake City, Utah

370 W.W. Phelps to Brigham Young, 12 August 1861, RevelationsCollection, LDS Church History Library, Salt Lake City, Utah

371 "Remarks of President Brigham Young at the Semi-annual Conference," LDS Church Historian's Office, Reports of Speeches, October 8, 1866 (CR I00 317 box 5, folder 20)

372 John Hawley, Autobiography, 1885, page 97, Community of Christ Archives, Independence, Missouri

373 "Emily Dow Partridge's Testimony," in Andrew Jenson, "Plural Marriage," The Historical Record 6 (May 1887), 223

374 "Joseph Bates Noble's Testimony," in Andrew Jenson, "PluralMarriage," The Historical Record6 (May 1887), 221

375 "David Fullmer's Testimony," in Andrew Jenson, "Plural Marriage,"The Historical Record 6 (May 1887), 227

376 "Lovina Walker's Certificate," in Andrew Jenson, "Plural Marriage,"The Historical Record 6 (May 1887), 223

377 "Eliza M. Partridge's Affidavit," in Andrew Jenson, "Plural Marriage,"The Historical Record 6 (May 1887), 223

378 "Apostle Lorenzo Snow's Testimony," in Andrew Jenson, "Plural Marriage," The Historical Record 6 (May 1887), 222

379 "John Benbow's Aefidavit [sic]," in Andrew Jenson, "PluralMarriage," The Historical Record 6 (May 1887), 222

380 Elvria A. C. Holmes affidavit, August 28, 1869, page 78, Joseph F.Smith Affidavit Books, Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah.

381 Affidavit of Adeline Brooks Andrus Benson, 5 September 1869 in theJoseph F. Smith plural marriage affidavit collection, Church History Library, Salt Lake City, Utah

382 George A. Smith to Joseph Smith, Salt Lake City, Utah, October 9,1869, Historian's Office Letterbook, Church Archives, Salt

Lake City, Utah.

'." "Benjamin F. Johnson's Testimony," in Andrew Jenson, "PluralMarriage," The Historical Record 6 (May 1887), 221

084 William E. McLellin to "Old Friends," February 22, 1872, in TheWilliam E. McLellin Papers, 1854-1880, ed. By Stan Larsen and Samuel J. Passey (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 2007) 481

385 William E. McLellin to Joseph Smith III, July 1872, Community ofChrist Archives, Independence, Missouri; also published in The William E. McLellin Papers, 1854-1880, ed. by Stan Larsen and Samuel J.Passey (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 2007) 488-489

386 Diary of Charles Lowell Walker, edited by A. Karl Larson andKatharine Miles Larson, v. 1 (Logan, Utah: Utah State University

Press, 1980, 349

387 "William Clayton's Testimony," in Andrew Jenson, "Plural Marriage,"The Historical Record 6 (May 1887), 224-26

388 A[nthony] Metcalf, Ten Years Before the Mast. Shipwrecks and Adventures at Sea' Religious Customs of the People of India and Burmah's Empire. How 1 Became a Mormon and Why 1 Became an Jef,de/1([Malad City, Idaho]: n.p. [1888]), 70-73.

389 Letter from William McLellin to John L. Traughber published inThe William E. McLellin, 1854-1880, ed. By Stan Larsen and Samuel J. Passey (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 2007) 500


390 "A Visit to John Whitmer," True Latter Day Saints' Herald,November I, 1875, 655. This is copied from the Deseret EveningNews.

391 Joseph F. Smith to Orson Pratt, Sr., 19 July 1875, Joseph F. Smith Letterbooks, Church History Library, Salt Lake City, Utah

392 [James H.] Beadle, "Jackson County," Salt Lake Tribune, 9 (October 6,1875), 4

393 Letter from William McLellin to John L. Traughber published inThe William E. Mclellin, 1854-1880, ed. By Stan Larsen and Samuel J. Passey (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 2007) 501

394 "Discourse by Elder Joseph F. Smith, Delivered in the Tabernacle, SaltLake City, Sunday Morning, July 7, 1878," Journal of

Discourses (Liverpool: William Budge, 1880), v. 20:29

395 "Orson Pratt's Testimony," in Andrew Jenson, "Plural Marriage," The Historical Record 6 (May 1887), 230; see also "Report of Elders Orson Pratt and Joseph F. Smith," The Latter-day Saints Millennial Star, 40(December 19, 1878), 788

396 Letter from William McLellin to John L. Traughber published in TheWilliam E. Mclellin. 1854-1880, ed. By Stan Larsen and

Samuel J. Passey (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 2007), 515

397 "Last Testimony of Sister Emma," The Saints· Herald, October I,1879, 289

398 "Editorial Items," The Saints' Herald, 15 May 1879, 152

399 "Last Testimony of Sister Emma," The Saints' Herald, October 1,1879, 289

400 In the President's Office: the Diaries ofl. John Nuttall. 1879-1892,edited by Jedediah S. Rogers (Salt Lake City: Signature

Books, 2007), 37

401 Joseph F. Smith, "Joseph the Seer's Plural Marriages," Deseret WeeklyNews, 22 October 1879, page 12

402 Joseph F. Smith, "Joseph the Seer's Plural Marriages," Deseret WeeklyNews, 22 October 1879, page 12

and "Eliza R. Snow's Testimony," in Andrew Jenson, "Plural Marriage,"The Historical Record 6 (May 1887), 224

403 Eliza R. Snow, "Letter on Plural Marriage," Woman's Exponent, (1November 1879), 84-85

404 "Wrath," Saints Herald, November 15, 1879, 344-46

405 In the President ·s Office: the Diaries of L John Nuttall, 1879-1892,edited by Jedediah S. Rogers (Salt Lake City: Signature

Books, 2007), 58-59

406 L. John Nuttall notes for John Taylor's office journal (MS 1346),Church History Library, Salt Lake City, Utah.

407 F. D. Richards, July 5, 1881, Ogden, Utah to Joseph F. Smith, Salt Lake City, Utah, Joseph F. Smith Collection, LOS Church History Library, Salt Lake City, Utah.

408 Josephine R. Fisher, Signed Statement, Bountiful, Utah, February24, 1915. It was signed in the presents of Andrew Jenson, Joseph Grant and I. F. Fisher. In the Andrew Jensen papers, LOS Church Archives, Salt Lake City, Utah

409 "Howard Coray Testimony," in Andrew Jenson, "Plural Marriage," TheHistorical Record 6 (May 1887), 228-29

410 In the President's Office: the Diaries of L John Nuttall. 1879-1892, edited by Jedediah S. Rogers (Salt Lake City: Signature Books, 2007), 96-97

411 "Additional Testimony,"," in Andrew Jenson, "Plural Marriage," TheHistorical Record 6 (May I 887), 232

412 "Additional Testimony,"," in Andrew Jenson, "Plural Marriage," TheHistorical Record6 (May 1887), 232

413 "Mercy R. Thompson's Testimony," in Andrew Jenson, "PluralMarriage," The Historical Record 6 (May 1887), 229

414 "Autobiography of Emily D. P. Young," Woman's Exponent, v. 13(December l, 1884), 102-103; v. 13 (December 15, 1884),

[105)-106; v. 13 (January 1, 1885), 114; v. 13 (January 15, 1885), 122; v.13 (February 1, 1885), [129)-130; v. 13 (February 15, 1885),

138; V. 13 (March 15, 1885), 154; V. 13 (April 1, 1885), 166-167; V. 13(April 15, 1885), [169]-170; V. 13 (May 15, 1885), 187; V. 14

(June I, 1885), 3; v. 14 (June 15, 1885), IO; v. 14 (July I, 1885), [17]-18;v. 14 (July 15, 1885), 26; v. 14 (August 1, 1885), 37-38; and

v. 14 (August 15, 1885), 43.

415 "Thomas Grover's Testimony," in Andrew Jenson, "Plural Marriage,"The Historical Record 6 (May 1887), 226-27

416 "Allen J. Stout's Testimony," in Andrew Jenson, "Plural Marriage,"The Historical Record 6 (May 1887), 230-31

417 "Leonard Soby's Testimony," in Andrew Jenson, "Plural Marriage,"The Historical Record 6 (May 1887), 227-28

418 "Mercy R. Thompson's Testimony," in Andrew Jenson, "PluralMarriage," The Historical Record 6 (May 1887), 229

419 "Leonard Soby's Letter," in Andrew Jenson, "Plural Marriage," TheHistorical Record 6 (May 1887), 228

420 Andrew Jenson, "Plural Marriage," The Historical Record 6 (May1887), 219. See also Orson Pratt's testimony on page 230 in

same source.

421 "Joseph C. Kingsbury's Testimony," in Andrew Jenson, "Plural Marriage," The Historical Record 6 (May 1887), 226

422 Arthur B. Deming, "Naked Truths About Mormonism," I (January1888), 2-3

423 Mary Elizabeth Rollins Lightner to John Henry Smith, Letter, January25, 1892, in the George A. Smith Family Papers, Special Collections,Marriott Library, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah

424 Emily Dow Partridge Young, diary, I 9March 1892, typescript, L.Tom Perry Special Collections, Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah

425 Emily D. P. Young, letter, January 27, 1899 to W. Collins, Wantagan,Illinois, Church History Library, Salt Lake City, Utah

426The Benjamin F. Johnson letter to Elder George S. Gibbs (Dugway,Utah: Kraut's Pioneer Press,?), 12

427 Mary Elizabeth Rollins Lightner, "Address at Brigham YoungUniversity," April 14, 1905, typescript, Special Collections, Harold

B. Lee Library, Provo, Utah.

428 Mary Elizabeth Rollins Lightner, "Address at Brigham YoungUniversity," April 14, 1905, typescript, Special Collections, Harold

B. Lee Library, Provo, Utah.

429 John Wickliff Rigdon, Affidavit, 28 July I 905, Church HistoryLibrary, Salt Lake City, Utah


430 Josephine R. Fisher, Signed Statement, Bountiful, Utah, February24, 1915. It was signed in the presents of Andrew Jenson, JosephGrant and I. F. Fisher. In the Andrew Jensen papers, LDS ChurchArchives, Salt Lake City, Utah

Oops I did it again...

We have as promised, collected a small list of gifts for the man who deserves it.

 These 3 luxury items will make a man forget whatever mistake you did. We found all these great "gadgets" online and they are shipped worldwide.

You need to hurry up, though. All items seen in this article are limited editions.

Is it possible to only have 5 pairs of shoes in your wardrobe?

We all love shoes and we can't have too many, right? Well, in this issue of FashionFreaks, we have a small competition for our readers. Come up with 5 different pairs of shoes that could cover all dressing situations in life and you could be our lucky winner.

Shopping News

Sorry, we couldn't find any posts. Please try a different search.

The Man, the Myth, the Watchmaker

Pierre-Yves Müller, the notorious Swiss watch maker, is sitting in a minimalistic garden chair outside his house located in the heart of fairy tale Swiss Alps. FashionFreaks were lucky enough to get an interview with this mysterious precision watchmaker.

It strikes me the second I see him, this man is the real deal. Well groomed fingers with nails trimmed to perfection. These hands are his tools and they are taken care of in the same manner an auto repairman takes care of his tools.

Pierre-Yves greets us with a conservative smile, there is no room for small talk in this interview. But small talk is not necessary, we want to know everything about the man and his company, Tick Tock, Tick Tock...

FF Quick Picks

Kalman Lipstick

The new line of Kalman lipsticks are very exciting. Intense colors and a very long lasting effect. For the price, you get a lot of lipstick. The design of the lipstick looks cheap, though.

Eamonn Jeans

Eamonn have released a new line of jeans called Eamonn No. 5. If you have the right figure, you're in for a treat. The tight fit looks great, and they are very comfortable to wear. Although pricy, you won't get a much better pair of jeans.

Aaqil Silk Ties

Luxury ties from Italian makers, Aaqil. These ties are the best looking ties we have seen in a long time. Expensive, yes.. a problem, NO.

Nuna Streetwear

Kids streetwear from Nuna means color and craziness. Soft materials and wild patterns are the building block of Nuna. Durable, expensive and wild. Can't really beat that.

Best fashion news in the world!

Sign up for our daily FashionFreaks newsletter and receive the best and most up to date news right away. Every month we also pick a winner among our newsletter readers. They will receive a full year of our special VIP membership.


Selected Stores
Coupon Deals
FashionFreaks VIP Shopping
Currency Converter
Popular Outlet Stores


Your Account
Renew Subscription
Member Deals
Get VIP Account
Recommend a Friend


Contact FF
Magazine Authors
Press Center
Careers at FF
Terms & Conditions


No part of this online fashion magazine can be re-produced without prior written agreement. If you are looking for press material, you can find it in the about section.

© 2016 FashionFreaks